Joseph Franklin Rutherford

Joseph RutherfordJ. F. RutherfordJoseph F. RutherfordJ.F. RutherfordJoseph "Judge" RutherfordJudge Rutherford’
Joseph Franklin Rutherford (November 8, 1869 – January 8, 1942), also known as Judge Rutherford, was the second president of the incorporated Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.wikipedia
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Development of Jehovah's Witnesses doctrine

doctrinal development
He played a primary role in the organization and doctrinal development of Jehovah's Witnesses, which emerged from the Bible Student movement established by Charles Taze Russell.
Early doctrines were based on interpretations of the Bible by Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society founder Charles Taze Russell, then added to, altered or discarded by his successors, Joseph Rutherford and Nathan Knorr.

Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's WitnessJehovah’s WitnessesJehovah Witnesses
He played a primary role in the organization and doctrinal development of Jehovah's Witnesses, which emerged from the Bible Student movement established by Charles Taze Russell.
A leadership dispute after Russell's death resulted in several groups breaking away, with Joseph Franklin Rutherford retaining control of the Watch Tower Society and its properties.

Bible Student movement

Bible StudentsInternational Bible StudentsBible Student
He played a primary role in the organization and doctrinal development of Jehovah's Witnesses, which emerged from the Bible Student movement established by Charles Taze Russell.
The most significant split began in 1917 following the election of Joseph Franklin Rutherford as president of the Watch Tower Society two months after Russell's death.

Charles Taze Russell

C.T. RussellCharles RussellCharles Taze "Pastor" Russell
He played a primary role in the organization and doctrinal development of Jehovah's Witnesses, which emerged from the Bible Student movement established by Charles Taze Russell.
(A seventh volume was commissioned by his successor as society president, Joseph Rutherford, and published in 1917.) The Watch Tower Society ceased publication of Russell's writings in 1927, though his books are still published by several independent groups.

Kingdom Hall

Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's WitnessesRegional Building Committee, Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Hall
He introduced the name "Jehovah's witnesses" in 1931 and the term "Kingdom Hall" for houses of worship in 1935.
The term was first suggested in 1935 by Joseph Franklin Rutherford, then president of the Watch Tower Society, for a building in Hawaii.

Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania

Watch Tower SocietyWatch Tower Bible and Tract SocietyWatchtower Bible and Tract Society
Joseph Franklin Rutherford (November 8, 1869 – January 8, 1942), also known as Judge Rutherford, was the second president of the incorporated Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
In 1909, Russell instructed legal counsel Joseph Franklin Rutherford to determine whether the society's headquarters could be moved to Brooklyn, New York.

Pastoral Bible Institute

By mid-1919 about one in seven Bible Students had chosen to leave rather than accept Rutherford's leadership, and over the following decade they helped form or joined other groups including the Stand Fast Movement, the Layman's Home Missionary Movement, the Dawn Bible Students Association, the Pastoral Bible Institute, the Elijah Voice Movement, the Concordant Publishing Concern, and the Eagle Society.
The Pastoral Bible Institute was started in 1918 when a number of prominent leaders and members withdrew their support from the Watch Tower Society after Joseph Rutherford became the president of the Society, following the death of pastor Charles Taze Russell.

Espionage Act of 1917

Espionage Actespionage1917 Espionage Act
Warrants were issued for the arrest of Rutherford and seven other Watch Tower directors, who were charged under the 1917 Espionage Act of attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, refusal of duty in the armed forces and obstructing the recruitment and enlistment service of the U.S. while it was at war.
Among those charged with offenses under the Act are German-American socialist congressman and newspaper editor Victor L. Berger, labor leader and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate, Eugene V. Debs, anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, former Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society president Joseph Franklin Rutherford, communists Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Pentagon Papers whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg, Cablegate whistleblower Chelsea Manning, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, Defense Intelligence Agency employee Henry Kyle Frese, and National Security Agency (NSA) contractor and whistleblower Edward Snowden.

Dawn Bible Students Association

Dawn Bible StudentsThe Dawn
By mid-1919 about one in seven Bible Students had chosen to leave rather than accept Rutherford's leadership, and over the following decade they helped form or joined other groups including the Stand Fast Movement, the Layman's Home Missionary Movement, the Dawn Bible Students Association, the Pastoral Bible Institute, the Elijah Voice Movement, the Concordant Publishing Concern, and the Eagle Society.
In 1928 Norman Woodworth, following intense personal disagreement with the new policies of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society and actions of the Society's President, Joseph Rutherford, left to create the radio program Frank and Ernest with the help of the Brooklyn congregation of Bible Students.

Jehovah's Witnesses practices

Memorial of Christ's deathMemorialService Meeting
Service directors, who reported back to Brooklyn, were appointed in each congregation and a weekly "service meeting" introduced to meeting programs.
undefined 1881) of the Bible Student movement, and of successive presidents of the Watch Tower Society, Joseph Franklin Rutherford (in office 1917–1942) and Nathan Homer Knorr (in office 1942–1977).

Alexander Hugh Macmillan

A. H. MacmillanAlexander H. Macmillan
Bible Student Alexander H. Macmillan, who served as an aide to the executive committee, later wrote that tensions at the Watch Tower Society headquarters mounted as the day for election of the Society's officers approached.
Macmillan traveled extensively with Russell, and in 1905 during a convention tour, he met J. F. Rutherford.

Armageddon

Battle of Armageddona final battle against God and his SaintsApocalypse
He established 1914 as the date of Christ's invisible return, asserted that Christ died on a tree rather than a cross, formulated the current Witness concept of Armageddon as God's war on the wicked, and reinforced the belief that the start of Christ's millennial reign was imminent.
The religion's current teaching on Armageddon originated in 1925 with former Watch Tower Society president J. F. Rutherford, who based his interpretations on the books of Exodus, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Psalms as well as additional material from the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.

Versailles, Missouri

VersaillesMissouri (Versailles)MO
Some sources list his place of birth as Boonville, Missouri, but according to his death certificate he was born in Versailles, Missouri.

Boonville, Missouri

BoonvilleBooneville, MissouriBooneville
Some sources list his place of birth as Boonville, Missouri, but according to his death certificate he was born in Versailles, Missouri.

Studies in the Scriptures

Millennial DawnThe Divine Plan of the Ages
In 1894 Rutherford purchased the first three volumes of Charles Taze Russell's Millennial Dawn series of Bible study textbooks from two colporteurs who visited his office.
It was soon established that it was largely written and compiled by two of Russell's associates, Clayton J. Woodworth and George H. Fisher, and edited by Russell's successor, Joseph Franklin Rutherford.

Minersville School District v. Gobitis

Minersville School District vs. GobitisMinersville School Dist. v. GobitisMinersville v. Gobitis
In 1940, children in 43 states were expelled for refusing to salute the flag and the Watch Tower Society took most cases to court, with Rutherford personally leading the unsuccessful case of Minersville School District v. Gobitis.
On Monday, June 3, 1935, Watch Tower Society president J. F. Rutherford, was interviewed at a Witness convention about "the flag salute by children in school".

Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses

Governing BodyAnthony Morris IIIcurrent members of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses
Former Jehovah's Witness and former Governing Body member Raymond Franz claimed there was no evidence Rutherford engaged in door-to-door ministry despite his assertion that it was a requirement and sacred duty of all Witnesses.
When the Society's second president, J. F. Rutherford, encountered opposition from directors in 1917, he dismissed them.

Olin R. Moyle

In July 1939 Olin R. Moyle, legal counsel for the Society, wrote an open letter of resignation to the president, in which he complained about behavior of some members of the Watch Tower Society, including Rutherford himself, that he considered excessive and inappropriate.
A dispute with Watch Tower Society president J. F. Rutherford led to Moyle's expulsion from the religion.

Nathan Homer Knorr

Nathan H. KnorrNathan Knorr
Rutherford was succeeded by Nathan Homer Knorr as president of the Watch Tower Society.
Nathan Homer Knorr (April 23, 1905 – June 8, 1977) was the third president of the incorporated Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, becoming so on January 13, 1942, replacing Joseph Franklin Rutherford, who had served in the position since 1917.

Beth Sarim

In 1929, a residence named Beth Sarim (literally, House of Princes) was constructed at San Diego, California for Rutherford's use, initially as winter accommodation and later as a full-time residence.
It was maintained by the Watch Tower Society, the parent organization used by Jehovah's Witnesses, and was also used as a winter home and executive office for Watch Tower president Joseph Franklin Rutherford.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Rutherford and seven other Watch Tower executives were imprisoned in 1918 after charges were laid over the publication of The Finished Mystery, a book deemed seditious for its opposition to World War I.

Theocracy

theocratictheocraciesreligious authority
He imposed a centralized administrative structure on the worldwide Bible Student movement, which he later called a theocracy, requiring all adherents to distribute literature via door to door preaching and to provide regular reports of their preaching activity.

Instrument of Jesus' crucifixion

crossaffixed to the crossinstrument of Christ's crucifixion
He established 1914 as the date of Christ's invisible return, asserted that Christ died on a tree rather than a cross, formulated the current Witness concept of Armageddon as God's war on the wicked, and reinforced the belief that the start of Christ's millennial reign was imminent.

Baptist beliefs

Baptist distinctivesBaptistBaptist theology
Rutherford was born on November 8, 1869 to James Calvin Rutherford and Leonora Strickland and raised in near-poverty in a Baptist farm family.

Missouri

MOState of MissouriMissouri, USA
Rutherford spent two years as a judge's intern, became an official court reporter at age 20, and was admitted to the Missouri bar in May 1892 at age 22.