Joseph Henry

Henry, JosephHenryJoseph Henry Papers ProjectProf. HenryProfessor Henry
Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.wikipedia
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Smithsonian Institution

SmithsonianUnited States National MuseumSmithsonian Museum
Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it also became the depository for various Washington and U.S. government collections.

Relay

relayslatching relayelectric relay
He invented a precursor to the electric doorbell (specifically a bell that could be rung at a distance via an electric wire, 1831) and electric relay (1835).
American scientist Joseph Henry is often claimed to have invented a relay in 1835 in order to improve his version of the electrical telegraph, developed earlier in 1831.

Inductance

mutual inductanceinductivemutual induction
While building electromagnets, Henry discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. The SI unit of inductance, the Henry, is named in his honor.
It is named for Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of Faraday.

Doorbell

door belldoor chimedoorbells
He invented a precursor to the electric doorbell (specifically a bell that could be rung at a distance via an electric wire, 1831) and electric relay (1835).
A precursor to the electric doorbell, specifically a bell that could be rung at a distance via an electric wire, was invented by Joseph Henry around 1831.

Henry (unit)

henryhenriesH
The SI unit of inductance, the Henry, is named in his honor.
If a current of 1 ampere flowing through the coil produces flux linkage of 1 weber turn, the coil has a self inductance of 1 henry.‌ The unit is named after Joseph Henry (1797–1878), the American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction independently of and at about the same time as Michael Faraday (1791–1867) in England.

Electrical telegraph

electric telegraphtelegraphtelegraph line
Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the practical electrical telegraph, invented by Samuel F. B. Morse and Sir Charles Wheatstone, separately.
Joseph Henry improved it in 1828 by placing several windings of insulated wire around the bar, creating a much more powerful electromagnet which could operate a telegraph through the high resistance of long telegraph wires.

Albany, New York

AlbanyAlbany, NYCity
Henry was born in Albany, New York, to Scottish immigrants Ann Alexander Henry and William Henry.
In 1829, while working as a professor at the Albany Academy, Joseph Henry, widely regarded as "the foremost American scientist of the 19th century", built the first electric motor.

Samuel Morse

Samuel F. B. MorseSamuel F.B. MorseMorse
Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the practical electrical telegraph, invented by Samuel F. B. Morse and Sir Charles Wheatstone, separately.
(Wheatstone was building on the primary research of Joseph Henry, an American physicist.) Cooke and Wheatstone formed a partnership and patented the electrical telegraph in May 1837, and within a short time had provided the Great Western Railway with a 13 mi stretch of telegraph.

National Institute for the Promotion of Science

National Institute for the Promotion of Science and the Useful Arts
He was the secretary for the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution.

Stephen Alexander (astronomer)

Stephen AlexanderAlexanderAlexander, Stephen
In 1848, while Secretary, Henry worked in conjunction with Professor Stephen Alexander to determine the relative temperatures for different parts of the solar disk.
He was the brother-in-law of Joseph Henry, the first secretary of the Smithsonian, and worked closely with him.

Elias Loomis

LoomisLoomis, Elias
In an 1841 letter to mathematician Elias Loomis, Henry wrote:
A large number of such accounts were secured from North America, from Europe, from Asia, and from places in the Southern Hemisphere; especially all the reports from the Smithsonian observers and correspondents, were placed in his hands by the Secretary, Professor Henry.

Theodric Romeyn Beck

T. Romeyn BeckBeckTheodorick Romeyn
Henry excelled at his studies (so much so, he would often help his teachers teach science) and in 1826 was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at The Albany Academy by Principal T. Romeyn Beck.
He served as the Principal of The Albany Academy from 1817 to 1848, where he encouraged the future curator of the Smithsonian Institution, Joseph Henry, to enroll as a student and later serve as a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in 1826.

Thaddeus S. C. Lowe

Thaddeus LoweProf. Thaddeus LoweProfessor Thaddeus S. C. Lowe
Prof. Henry was introduced to Prof. Thaddeus Lowe, a balloonist from New Hampshire who had taken interest in the phenomenon of lighter-than-air gases, and exploits into meteorology, in particular, the high winds which we call the Jet stream today.
He amassed supporters from all corners of the business and scientific communities, in particular one Prof. Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institution, who wrote:

Union Army Balloon Corps

Balloon Corpsballoon observersmilitary balloons
On Henry's recommendation Lowe went on to form the United States Army/"Union Army" Balloon Corps and served two years with the Army of the Potomac as a Civil War "Aeronaut".
His scientific record was held in high regard among colleagues of the day, to include one Prof. Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institution, who became his greatest benefactor.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellAlexander Bell
One such visitor was Alexander Graham Bell, who on 1 March 1875 carried a letter of introduction to Henry.
In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry, who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.

Henry Mountains

Henry
The Henry Mountains were the last mountain range to be added to the map of the 48 contiguous U.S. states.
They were named by Almon Thompson in honor of Joseph Henry, the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

The Albany Academy

Albany AcademyAlbany Boys AcademyAlbany Academy for Boys
Henry excelled at his studies (so much so, he would often help his teachers teach science) and in 1826 was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at The Albany Academy by Principal T. Romeyn Beck. In 1819 he entered The Albany Academy, where he was given free tuition. After the Albany Academy moved out of its downtown building in the early 1930s, its old building in Academy Park was renamed Joseph Henry Memorial, with a statue of him out front.
The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its architectural significance and role as home to scientist Joseph Henry's laboratory.

Philosophical Society of Washington

Washington Philosophical SocietyPhilosophical Society of the District of Columbia
On 13 January 1877, Bell demonstrated his instruments to Henry at the Smithsonian Institution and Henry invited Bell to demonstrate them again that night at the Washington Philosophical Society.
The Philosophical Society of Washington is the oldest scientific society in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1871 by Joseph Henry.

Transit of Venus March

Transit Of Venus
Henry died on 13 May 1878, and was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery in the Georgetown section of northwest Washington, D.C. John Phillips Sousa wrote the Transit of Venus March for the unveiling of the Joseph Henry statue in front of the Smithsonian Castle.
One year after the 1882 Transit of Venus, Sousa was commissioned to compose a processional for the unveiling of a bronze statue of American physicist Joseph Henry, who had died in 1878.

Library of Congress

The Library of CongressUnited States Library of CongressU.S. Library of Congress
Bronze statues of Henry and Isaac Newton represent science on the balustrade of the galleries of the Main Reading Room in the Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. They are two of the 16 historical figures depicted in the reading room, each pair representing one of the 8 pillars of civilization.
His efforts were blocked by Smithsonian secretary Joseph Henry, who advocated a focus on scientific research and publication.

Old Albany Academy Building

Joseph Henry Memorialmain officesoriginal
After the Albany Academy moved out of its downtown building in the early 1930s, its old building in Academy Park was renamed Joseph Henry Memorial, with a statue of him out front.
In the 1820s, Joseph Henry co-discovered electrical inductance in experiments conducted in the building, a discovery that was important to the later development of the telegraph and, by extension, the modern telecommunications of the Information Age.

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

Hall of FameAmerican Hall of Fame
In 1915 Henry was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans in the Bronx, New York.

Lafayette Park Historic District

Lafayette Park
In 1971 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; later it was included as a contributing property when the Lafayette Park Historic District was listed on the Register.
In it and the other three parks are statues commemorating George Washington and Albany natives like Civil War general Phillip Sheridan and electromagnet discoverer Joseph Henry.

Princeton University

PrincetonPrinceton CollegeCollege of New Jersey
From 1832 to 1846, Henry served as the first Chair of Natural History at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).
Notable former faculty members include John Witherspoon, Walter Kaufmann, John von Neumann, Ben Bernanke, Paul Krugman, Joseph Henry, Toni Morrison, John P. Lewis, and alumnus Woodrow Wilson, who also served as president of the University 1902–1910.

Smithsonian Institution Building

Smithsonian CastleSmithsonian InstitutionSmithsonian Institution's "Castle
Henry died on 13 May 1878, and was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery in the Georgetown section of northwest Washington, D.C. John Phillips Sousa wrote the Transit of Venus March for the unveiling of the Joseph Henry statue in front of the Smithsonian Castle.
The East Wing was completed in 1849 and occupied by Secretary Joseph Henry and his family.