Juan Fernández Islands

Juan Fernandez IslandsJuan FernándezJuan FernandezJuan Fernández ArchipelagoJuan Fernandez ArchipelagoJuan Fernández IslandJuan Fernández Islands temperate forestsJuan Fernández Is Juan Fernandez, Archipielago Juan Fernández, ArchipiélagoArchipiélago Juan Fernández
The Juan Fernández Islands (Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group in the South Pacific Ocean reliant on tourism and fishing.wikipedia
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Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
Situated 670 km off the coast of Chile, they are composed of three main volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara.
Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania.

Santa Clara Island

Santa ClaraSanta Clara (Juan Fernández Islands)Isla Santa Clara
Situated 670 km off the coast of Chile, they are composed of three main volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara.
Santa Clara Island (Isla Santa Clara) is a tiny, uninhabited island in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Robinson Crusoe Island in a group of islands known as the Juan Fernández Islands.

Alexander Selkirk

The Real Robinson Crusoe
The islands are primarily known for having been the home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk for more than four years from 1704, which may have inspired Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
Stradling's ship stopped to resupply at the uninhabited Juan Fernández Islands, and Selkirk judged correctly that the craft was unseaworthy and asked to be left there.

San Juan Bautista, Chile

San Juan Bautista
Most of the archipelago's present-day inhabitants reside on Robinson Crusoe Island, and mainly in the capital, San Juan Bautista, located at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.
San Juan Bautista is the main town in the Juan Fernández Islands.

Insular Chile

The group is considered part of Insular Chile.
Confusingly, the Juan Fernández Islands and the Desventuradas Islands are considered "Continental Insular Chile" (despite not being continental islands); Salas y Gómez Island and Easter Island – both geographically situated in Polynesia – form the zone known as "Oceanic Insular Chile".

Valparaíso Region

ValparaísoValparaiso RegionRegión de Valparaíso
The group of islands is part of Chile's Valparaíso Region (which also includes Easter Island) and, along with the Desventuradas Islands, forms one of the nine communes of Valparaíso Province.
Additionally, the Pacific islands of Easter Island (Isla de Pascua), Isla Salas y Gómez, the Juan Fernández Islands and the Desventuradas Islands fall under the Valparaíso Region's administration.

Robinson Crusoe

RobinsonnovelCrusoe
The islands are primarily known for having been the home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk for more than four years from 1704, which may have inspired Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
Most famously, Defoe's suspected inspiration for Robinson Crusoe is thought to be Scottish sailor, Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years on the uninhabited island of Más a Tierra (renamed Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966) in the Juan Fernández Islands off the Chilean coast.

Easter Island

Rapa NuiIsla de PascuaEaster
The group of islands is part of Chile's Valparaíso Region (which also includes Easter Island) and, along with the Desventuradas Islands, forms one of the nine communes of Valparaíso Province.
On 30 July 2007, a constitutional reform gave Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands (also known as Robinson Crusoe Island) the status of "special territories" of Chile.

Communes of Chile

communecommunescomuna
The group of islands is part of Chile's Valparaíso Region (which also includes Easter Island) and, along with the Desventuradas Islands, forms one of the nine communes of Valparaíso Province.

Cerro de Los Inocentes

Alejandro Selkirk is the largest of the Juan Fernández Islands at 49.5 km², and its highest peak, Cerro de Los Inocentes, is also the highest point of the archipelago at 1268 m. The island's population was 57 in 2012.
Cerro de Los Inocentes (meaning "Hill of the Innocents" in Spanish) is the highest mountain in the Juan Fernández Islands, Valparaíso Region, Chile.

Mediterranean climate

warm-summer Mediterranean climateMediterraneanCsb
The islands have a subtropical Mediterranean climate, moderated by the cold Humboldt Current, which flows northward to the east of the islands, and the southeast trade winds.
Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements, though they, too, are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, and the eastern part of the Azores.

Juan Fernández hotspot

Juan Fernández
The islands are volcanic in origin, produced by the movement of the Nazca Plate over the Juan Fernández hotspot.
The hotspot created the Juan Fernández Ridge which includes the Juan Fernández Archipelago and a long seamount chain that is being subducted in the Peru–Chile Trench at the site of Papudo giving origin to the Norte Chico Volcanic Gap.

Myrceugenia

Nothomyrcia
Alejandro Selkirk is mostly covered with grassland from 0 to 400 m, interspersed with wooded ravines (quebradas), home to dry forests of Myrceugenia and Zanthoxylum fagara.
Two species are endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands in the Pacific Ocean west of the Chilean coast.

Daniel Defoe

DefoeDefoe, DanielDaniel Dafoe
The islands are primarily known for having been the home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk for more than four years from 1704, which may have inspired Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
The novel has been assumed to be based in part on the story of the Scottish castaway Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years stranded in the Juan Fernández Islands, but this experience is inconsistent with the details of the narrative.

Ugni

From 400 m to 600 m are lower montane forests, with upper montane forest from 600 m to 950 m. The treeline is at approximately 950 m, above which is alpine shrubland and grassland, dominated by temperate Magellanic vegetation such as Acaena, Dicksonia, Drimys, Empetrum, Gunnera, Myrteola, Pernettya, and Ugni.
It is native to western Latin America from the Valdivian temperate rain forests of southern Chile (including the Juan Fernández Islands) and adjacent regions of southern Argentina, north to southern Mexico.

Lactoris

LactoridaceaeLactoridalesLactoridoideae
There are 126 species (62 percent) that are endemic, with 12 endemic genera and one endemic family, Lactoridaceae.
Lactoris fernandeziana is a flowering shrub endemic to the cloud forest of Masatierra — Robinson Crusoe Island, of the Juan Fernández Islands archipelago of Chile.

Valparaíso Province

Valparaíso
The group of islands is part of Chile's Valparaíso Region (which also includes Easter Island) and, along with the Desventuradas Islands, forms one of the nine communes of Valparaíso Province.

Juania

Juania australisChonta palm
The Chonta palm (Juania australis) is endangered.
It is a solitary trunked palm tree which is endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands archipelago in the southeast Pacific Ocean west of Chile.

Rhaphithamnus venustus

Citharexylum elegansJuan Bueno
On Robinson Crusoe, grasslands predominate from 0 to 100 m; introduced shrubs from 100 m to 300 m; tall forests from 300 m to 500 m; montane forests from 500 m to 700 m, with dense tree cover of Cuminia fernandezia, Fagara, and Rhaphithamnus venustus; tree fern forests from 700 m to 750 m, and brushwood forests above 750 m. Santa Clara is covered with grassland.
It is endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands, an archipelago west of Chile.

Thyrsopteris

ThyrsopteridaceaeThyrsopteris elegans
externa on Alexander Selkirk) and the endemic genus Thyrsopteris (T.
Thyrsopteris is a predominant plant genus in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago.

Robinson Crusoe Island

Más a TierraRobinson CrusoeJuan Fernandez Island
Situated 670 km off the coast of Chile, they are composed of three main volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara.
Robinson Crusoe Island (Isla Róbinson Crusoe ), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean.

Dicksonia

tree fernsFerns (''Dicksonia'')Whekī ponga
From 400 m to 600 m are lower montane forests, with upper montane forest from 600 m to 950 m. The treeline is at approximately 950 m, above which is alpine shrubland and grassland, dominated by temperate Magellanic vegetation such as Acaena, Dicksonia, Drimys, Empetrum, Gunnera, Myrteola, Pernettya, and Ugni.

Alejandro Selkirk Island

Alejandro SelkirkMas a FueraIsla Alejandro Selkirk
Situated 670 km off the coast of Chile, they are composed of three main volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara.
Alejandro Selkirk Island (Isla Alejandro Selkirk), previously known as Más Afuera (Farther Out (to Sea)) and renamed after the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk, is the largest and most westerly island in the Juan Fernández Archipelago of the Valparaíso Region of Chile.

Juan Fernández fur seal

A. philippiifur sealJuan Fernandez fur seal
The Juan Fernández fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii) also lives on the islands.
They are found only on the Pacific Coast of South America, more specifically on the Juan Fernández Islands and the Desventuradas Islands.

Masafuera rayadito

Aphrastura masafueraeMas Afuera rayadito
The other endemic bird species are the Juan Fernández tit-tyrant (Anairetes fernandezianus) of Robinson Crusoe Island, and the Masafuera rayadito (Aphrastura masafuerae) of Alejandro Selkirk Island.
The Masafuera rayadito (Aphrastura masafuerae) is a rare bird endemic to Alejandro Selkirk Island (Isla Más Afuera, Outermost Island) in the Juan Fernández Islands.