Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Mount Sinai, showing the approach to Mount Sinai, 1839 painting by David Roberts, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
View down to the Saint Catherine's Monastery from the trail to the summit
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
A mosque at the top
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Saint Catherine's Monastery
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
The Siq, facing Petra's Treasury, at the foot of Jebel al-Madhbah
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
Midian
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
1723
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Moses on Mount Sinai, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1895-1900
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
Mass-revelation at Mount Sinai in an illustration from a Bible card published by the Providence Lithograph Company, 1907
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
God Appears to Elijah on Mount Horeb, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
Mount Sinai depicted on late medieval Georgian manuscript
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
Published by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet, 1719
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
16th century
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Mount Sinai, by El Greco, 1570-1572
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Mount Sinai is one of the most sacred locations in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

- Mount Sinai (Bible)

Within Judaism, there are a variety of religious movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.

- Judaism
Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

2 related topics

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Moses with the Tables of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni (Galleria Borghese)

Moses

Considered the most important prophet in Judaism and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith, the Baháʼí Faith and other Abrahamic religions.

Considered the most important prophet in Judaism and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith, the Baháʼí Faith and other Abrahamic religions.

Moses with the Tables of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni (Galleria Borghese)
The Finding of Moses, painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1904
Moses striking the rock, 1630 by Pieter de Grebber
Moses before the Pharaoh, a 6th-century miniature from the Syriac Bible of Paris
Victory O Lord!, 1871 painting by John Everett Millais, depicts Moses holding his staff, assisted by Aaron and Hur, holding up his arms during the battle against Amalek.
Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law by Rembrandt, 1659
Memorial of Moses, Mount Nebo, Jordan
Depiction of Moses on the Knesset Menorah raising his arms during the battle against the Amalekites
Moses Defends Jethro's Daughters by Rosso Fiorentino, c.1523-1524
Moses lifts up the brass serpent, curing the Israelites from poisonous snake bites in a painting by Benjamin West.
Moses, to the left of Jesus, at the Transfiguration of Jesus, by Giovanni Bellini, c. 1480
Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho
Statue of Moses at the Library of Congress
Pilgrims John Carver, William Bradford, and Miles Standish, at prayer during their voyage to North America. 1844 painting by Robert Walter Weir
First proposed seal of the United States, 1776
Moses, with horns, by Michelangelo, 1513–1515, in Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
Sculpture in the U.S. House of Representatives
Charlton Heston in The Ten Commandments, 1956
The Women of Midian Led Captive by the Hebrews, James Tissot c.1900

After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments.

In Strabo's writings of the history of Judaism as he understood it, he describes various stages in its development: from the first stage, including Moses and his direct heirs; to the final stage where "the Temple of Jerusalem continued to be surrounded by an aura of sanctity".

A 4th-century BCE silver coin from the Persian province of Yehud Medinata, possibly representing Yahweh enthroned on a winged wheel

Yahweh

The national god of ancient Israel and Judah.

The national god of ancient Israel and Judah.

A 4th-century BCE silver coin from the Persian province of Yehud Medinata, possibly representing Yahweh enthroned on a winged wheel
Late Bronze Age statuette of a storm god from Phoenician Antaradus
Early Iron Age bull figurine from Bull Site at Dhahrat et-Tawileh (modern West Bank, ancient Ephraim), representing El, Baal or Yahweh
Painting on a jar found at Kuntillet Ajrud, under the inscription "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" (c. 800 BCE)
The Second Temple, as rebuilt by Herod c. 20–10 BCE (modern model, 1:50 scale)
Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem (painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902).

Towards the end of the Babylonian captivity, the very existence of foreign gods was denied, and Yahweh was proclaimed as the creator of the cosmos and the one true God of all the world, giving birth to Judaism, which has c. undefined 14–15 million adherents today.

These probably pre-dated the arrival of the Yahweh religion, but they became linked to events in the national mythos of Israel: Passover with the exodus from Egypt, Shavuot with the law-giving at Mount Sinai, and Sukkot with the wilderness wanderings.