Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

Privy CouncilJudicial CommitteeJudicial Committee of the British Privy CouncilJudicial Committee of the Imperial Privy CouncilCourt of DelegatesPrivy CouncillorPrivy Counsellorappeal to the Privy CouncilAppeals to the Privy CouncilCommonwealth of Nations
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.wikipedia
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List of judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales

List of Lords Justices of Appealsenior judgesList of Lord Justices of Appeal
Formally a statutory committee of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, the Judicial Committee consists of senior judges who are Privy Councillors: they are predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth.
Judges of the Court of Appeal are made members of the Privy Council within months of appointment, enabling them to serve as members of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and entitling them to the style The Right Honourable.

Supreme court

court of last resorthighest courtsupreme
Established on 13 August 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King-in-Council, the Privy Council formerly acted as the court of last resort for the entire British Empire (other than for the United Kingdom itself), and continues to act as the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth nations, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories.
Within the former British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London).

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

Supreme CourtUK Supreme CourtUnited Kingdom Supreme Court
Formally a statutory committee of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, the Judicial Committee consists of senior judges who are Privy Councillors: they are predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth.
Its jurisdiction over devolution matters had previously been exercised by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
In Commonwealth realms, appeals are nominally made to "Her Majesty in Council" (i.e. the British monarch as formally advised by her Privy Counsellors), who then refers the case to the Judicial Committee for "advice", while in Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself.
The United Kingdom no longer possesses legislative power over any other country; however, some countries continue, by their own choice, to use the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as part of their own judiciary, usually as the highest court of appeal.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Established on 13 August 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King-in-Council, the Privy Council formerly acted as the court of last resort for the entire British Empire (other than for the United Kingdom itself), and continues to act as the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth nations, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, including the same members as the Supreme Court, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies.

Constitutional Reform Act 2005

Constitutional Reform BillConstitutional Reform ActOffice created
Prior to the coming into force of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the Privy Council was the court of last resort for devolution issues.
It provides for a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom to take over the previous appellate jurisdiction of the Law Lords as well as some powers of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, and removed the functions of Speaker of the House of Lords and Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales from the office of Lord Chancellor.

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad & TobagoTrinidadianTrinidad
*Mauritius and Trinidad and Tobago, and also, if the case involves constitutional rights, Kiribati.
In 1976 the country became a republic within the Commonwealth, though it retained the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as its final appellate court.

High Court of Justiciary

High CourtLord of JusticiaryCourt of Justiciary
(In Scotland the highest court in criminal cases is the High Court of Justiciary; the Supreme Court is the highest court in civil cases and matters arising from Scottish devolution, the latter previously having been dealt with by the Judicial Committee.)
Scottish devolution and the establishment of the Scottish Parliament by the Scotland Act 1998 introduced the right to refer points of law to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

Jamaica

JAMJamaicanJamaica, West Indies
The government of Jamaica in particular had come close and attempted to abolish appeals to the Judicial Committee without the support of the opposition in Parliament; however, it was ruled by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council that the procedure used in Jamaica to bypass the opposition was incorrect and unconstitutional.
The court of final appeal is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, though during the 2000s parliament attempted to replace it with the Caribbean Court of Justice.

Lord Chancellor

Lord High Chancellor of Great BritainLord Chancellor of EnglandChancellor
In 1833, at the instigation of Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor, Parliament passed the Judicial Committee Act 1833.
He sat as a judge in the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords (the highest domestic Court in the United Kingdom), and was a member of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (the senior tribunal of the British Empire (except for the United Kingdom) and, latterly, parts of the Commonwealth).

Supreme Court of Canada

Supreme CourtCanadian Supreme CourtSupreme Court Justice
Canada created its own Supreme Court in 1875 and abolished appeals to the Privy Council in criminal cases in 1933.
However, prior to 1949, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort: litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

Niue

Niue IslandNiue-FekaiNiueans
The judiciary, independent of the executive and the legislature, includes a High Court and a Court of Appeal, with appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

Admiralty court

High Court of AdmiraltyCourt of AdmiraltyAdmiralty Courts
Until 1904 the Registrar of the Admiralty court was also Registrar to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in ecclesiastical and maritime causes.
Appeal from the court's decisions lies to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

Staff of Government Division

It is the second highest court in the Isle of Man with final appeal going to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council acting as 'The Queen in Council'.

High Court of Chivalry

Court of ChivalryChivalrylaws
From 1 February 1833, following the passage of the Judicial Committee Act 1833, appeals have been heard directly by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

Supreme Court of India

Supreme CourtIndian Supreme CourtThe Supreme Court of India
Following the replacement of the Federal Court with the Supreme Court of India in January 1950, the Abolition of Privy Council Jurisdiction Act 1949 came into effect, ending the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
It replaced both the Federal Court of India and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which were then at the apex of the Indian court system.

High Court of Australia

High CourtAustralian High CourtSupreme Court
In 1901, the Constitution of Australia limited appeals from the new federal High Court of Australia to the Privy Council, by prohibiting appeals on constitutional matters unless leave is granted by the High Court on inter se questions.
The issue of appeals from the High Court to the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was a significant one during the drafting of the Constitution and it continued to be significant in the years after the court's creation.

Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

Commonwealth republicrepublic within the Commonwealthrepublic
In Commonwealth realms, appeals are nominally made to "Her Majesty in Council" (i.e. the British monarch as formally advised by her Privy Counsellors), who then refers the case to the Judicial Committee for "advice", while in Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself.
While the moves to both independence and republican status have broken the remaining constitutional links to the United Kingdom, a number of Commonwealth countries have retained a right of appeal directly to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council; for example, Mauritius, and (if the case involves constitutional rights) Kiribati.

Caribbean Court of Justice

CCJCaribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)
The nations of the Caribbean Community voted in 2001 to abolish the right of appeal to the Privy Council in favour of a Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ).
The reasons given for the establishment of a supreme appellate court are many and varied, including a perceived regional disenfranchisement from the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

Arches Court

Court of ArchesArches court of CanterburyCourt of the Arches
It hears appeals from the Arches Court of Canterbury and the Chancery Court of York, except on matters of doctrine, ritual or ceremony, which go to the Court for Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved.
Appeal lies with the Privy Council, except on matters of doctrine, ritual or ceremony, which go to the Court for Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved.

Federal Court of India

Federal Court
India retained the right of appeal from the Federal Court of India to the Privy Council after the establishment of the Dominion of India.
There was a right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London from the Federal Court of India.

Antigua and Barbuda

AntiguanAntiguaAntigua & Barbuda
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council serves as its Supreme Court of Appeal.

Supreme Court of New Zealand

Supreme CourtNew Zealand Supreme CourtHigh Court
It was not until October 2003 that New Zealand law was changed to abolish appeals to the Privy Council in respect of all cases heard by the Court of Appeal of New Zealand after the end of 2003, in favour of a Supreme Court of New Zealand.
It replaced the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, based in London.

Ecclesiastical court

ecclesiastical courtsecclesiastical tribunaltribunal
In practice, the case is heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which includes present and former Lords Chancellor, a number of Lords of Appeal and other high judicial officers.

Law of Jersey

JerseylegalJersey Bar
All Jersey courts are, however, bound by points of law decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in previous Jersey appeals to that court.