Judiciary Act of 1789

The first page of the Judiciary Act of 1789
John Jay Chief Justice Commissioned: Sept. 26, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/jay-john|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Jay, John|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
John Rutledge Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 26, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/rutledge-john|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Rutledge, John|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
William Cushing Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 27, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/cushing-william|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Cushing, William|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
James Wilson Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 29, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/wilson-james|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Wilson, James|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
John Blair Associate Justice Commissioned: Sept. 30, 1789<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/blair-john-jr|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Blair, John, Jr.|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>
James Iredell Associate Justice Commissioned: Feb. 10, 1790<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/iredell-james|title=History of the Federal Judiciary, Judges, Iredell, James|website=fjc.gov}}</ref>

The Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch.

- Judiciary Act of 1789

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Supreme Court of the United States

Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review

Established by Article Three of the United States Constitution, the composition and procedures of the Supreme Court were initially established by the 1st Congress through the Judiciary Act of 1789.

United States district court

The United States district courts are the trial courts of the U.S. federal judiciary.

Map of the boundaries of the United States district courts within each of the 13 circuits of the United States courts of appeals. All district courts lie within the boundary of a single jurisdiction, usually in a state (heavier lines). Some states have more than one district court (dotted lines denote those jurisdictions)
United States District Court Attorney Admissions Reciprocity Map
United States Court House in downtown Los Angeles, California, one of several sites used by the Central District of California.

Unlike the U.S. Supreme Court, which was established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress under the Judiciary Act of 1789.

United States circuit court

The United States circuit courts were the intermediate level courts of the United States federal court system from 1789 until 1912.

Coat of arms

They were established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, and had trial court jurisdiction over civil suits of diversity jurisdiction and major federal crimes.

1st United States Congress

The 1st United States Congress, comprising the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia.

Congress Hall in Philadelphia, meeting place of this Congress's third session.
Statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall, where he was first inaugurated as president.
Senate President John Adams
Senate President pro tempore John Langdon
Speaker of the House Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania
Beginning of the Congress
End of the Congress
Beginning of the Congress
End of the Congress

September 24, 1789: Judiciary Act of 1789, ch. 20,, which established the federal judiciary and the office of Attorney General

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and the highest-ranking officer of the U.S. federal judiciary.

The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

United States Marshals Service

Federal law enforcement agency in the United States.

Deputy U.S. Marshal Morgan Earp in an 1881 photograph
U.S. marshals accompanying James Meredith to class
Marshals escort six year old Ruby Bridges from school.
Bat Masterson (standing second from right), Wyatt Earp (sitting second from left), and other deputy marshals during the Wild West era
Equipment used by the USMS
Marshals being briefed for Operation FALCON III, 2008
Deputy U.S. Marshals and Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department officers during a "knock-and-announce" procedure
United States Marshals escorting a prisoner in court
Marshals arresting a suspect
Deputy United States Marshal guarding prisoners
A U.S. Marshal on a "Con Air" flight
Wild Bill Hickok
Bass Reeves
Wyatt Earp
Frank Eaton

It is the oldest U.S. federal law enforcement agency, created by the Judiciary Act of 1789 during the presidency of George Washington as the "Office of the United States Marshal".

United States Attorney General

Chief law enforcement officer of the federal government of the United States.

Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 which, among other things, established the Office of the Attorney General.

Pro se legal representation in the United States

Attorney do it for you.

The High Court of Australia, the highest appellate court in Australia

Section 35 of the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat.

United States Attorney

United States attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.

Flag of a United States attorney.
Map of the boundaries of the United States courts of appeals (by color) and United States District Courts. All District Courts lie within the boundary of a single jurisdiction, usually in a state (heavier lines); some states have more than one District Court (lighter lines denote those jurisdictions)

The Office of the United States Attorney was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789, along with the office of Attorney General and United States Marshal.

Oliver Ellsworth

Attorney, judge, politician, and diplomat.

Oliver and Abigail Ellsworth by Ralph Earl
Letter from Ellsworth to George Washington wishing former president "a most respectful and most cordial farewell," March 1797
An engraving depicting Ellsworth
Ellsworth's gravesite

He was the chief author of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which shaped the federal judiciary of the United States and established the Supreme Court's power to overturn state supreme court decisions that were contrary to the United States Constitution.