The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.
1st century AD bust of Pompey, after an original from 55–50 BC
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
Gaius Marius, Caesar's uncle
A view of Monte Conero in Marche, Italy (formerly Picenum), birthplace of Pompey
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla stripped Caesar of the priesthood.
Roman statue putatively depicting Pompey, at the Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan, Italy), brought from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati
A Roman marble head of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus, mid-1st century BC, Grand Palais, Paris
A denarius depicting Julius Caesar, dated to February–March 44 BC—the goddess Venus is shown on the reverse, holding Victoria and a scepter. Caption: CAESAR IMP. M. / L. AEMILIVS BVCA
Marble bust of Pompey at the Louvre, Paris
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests
Modern bust of Pompey in the Residenz, Munich
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
Vercingetorix throws down his arms at the feet of Julius Caesar, painting by Lionel Royer. Musée Crozatier, Le Puy-en-Velay, France.
A Roman portrait of Crassus, Pompey's political rival turned begrudging ally, in the Musée du Louvre, Paris
Denarius minted by Publius Licinius Crassus, son of the triumvir Marcus, as monetalis in 55 BC; on the obverse is a laureate bust of Venus, perhaps in honor of his commanding officer Julius Caesar; on the reverse is an unidentified female figure, perhaps representing Gaul
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy.
A denarius of Pompey minted in 49–48 BC
"The torture of Crassus," 1530s, Louvre
Cleopatra and Caesar, 1866 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
A tetradrachm of Tigranes II the Great of Armenia, minted at Antioch, 83–69 BC
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii is probably a depiction of Cleopatra VII as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as Cupid. Its owner Marcus Fabius Rufus most likely ordered its concealment behind a wall in reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Octavian in 30 BC.
Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, a miniature by Jean Fouquet, 15th century
Green Caesar, posthumous portrait of the 1st century AD, Altes Museum, Berlin
The bust of Mithridates of Pontus in the Louvre, Paris
Statue of Julius Caesar, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Rome
Judea (shown in blue) under Hyrcanus II in 63 BC, having been reduced to a small vassal as Pompey annexed the north for Rome (shown in red)
La clémence de César, Abel de Pujol, 1808
A modern bust of Pompey, restored in the 17th century with a black marble base, Vaux-le-Vicomte, France
Denarius (42 BC) issued by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Lentulus Spinther, depicting the crowned head of Liberty and on the reverse a sacrificial jug and lituus, from the military mint in Smyrna. Caption: C. CASSI. IMP. LEIBERTAS / LENTVLVS SPINT.
18th-century depiction of the third triumph
The senators encircle Caesar, a 19th-century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
The Death of Caesar, Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1867
The Tusculum portrait, a bust of Julius Caesar in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
Bust of Mark Antony made during the Flavian dynasty (69–96 AD)
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
Marc Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral by George Edward Robertson
The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Caesar's adopted heir
Roman bust of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt, mid-1st century BC, Altes Museum, Antikensammlung Berlin, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head
The Chiaramonti Caesar bust, a posthumous portrait in marble, 44–30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums
Theodotus shows Caesar the head of Pompey; etching, 1820
Reliefs of Cleopatra and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The head of Pompey on a denarius minted in 40 BC by his son Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius
Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II, Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
Julii Caesaris quae exstant (1678)
A 1783 edition of The Gallic Wars
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902
Bust in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples
Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum
Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy
Statue of Julius Caesar, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Rome
Flowers placed on the remains of the altar of Caesar in the Roman Forum of Rome, Italy
Portrait at the Archaeological Museum of Sparta
Bronze statue at the Porta Palatina in Turin
Bust in the Archaeological Museum of Corinth

A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war, and subsequently became dictator of Rome from 49 BC until his assassination in 44 BC. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

- Julius Caesar

In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years.

- Julius Caesar

He was (for a time) a student of Roman general Sulla as well as the political ally, and later enemy, of Julius Caesar.

- Pompey

Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the consulship with his rival Pompey the Great.

- Marcus Licinius Crassus

A political and financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined Caesar and Pompey in the unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.

- Marcus Licinius Crassus

In 60 BC, Pompey joined Crassus and Caesar in the military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.

- Pompey
The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.

11 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC

Roman Republic

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State of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

State of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
The "Capitoline Brutus", a bust possibly depicting Lucius Junius Brutus, who led the revolt against Rome's last king and was a founder of the Republic.
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
Map showing Roman expansion in Italy.
The Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome, built in the mid 2nd century BC, most likely by Lucius Mummius Achaicus, who won the Achaean War.
Pyrrhus' route in Italy and Sicily.
Bust of Pyrrhus, found in the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Naples Archaeological Museum. Pyrrhus was a brave and chivalrous general who fascinated the Romans, explaining his presence in a Roman house.
Coin of Hiero II of Syracuse.
The Roman Republic before the First Punic War.
Diagram of a corvus.
Denarius of C. Caecilius Metellus Caprarius, 125 BC. The reverse depicts the triumph of his great-grandfather Lucius, with the elephants he had captured at Panormos. The elephant had thence become the emblem of the powerful Caecilii Metelli.
Principal offensives of the war: Rome (red), Hannibal (green), Hasdrubal (purple).
A Carthaginian quarter shekel, perhaps minted in Spain. The obverse may depict Hannibal under the traits of young Melqart. The reverse features one of his famous war elephants.
Roman marble bust of Scipio Africanus, found in the Tomb of the Scipios.
Scene of the Battle of Corinth (146 BC): last day before the Roman legions looted and burned the Greek city of Corinth. The last day on Corinth, Tony Robert-Fleury, 1870.
Bust, traditionally identified as Gaius Marius, instigator of the Marian reforms.
Denarius of Faustus Cornelius Sulla, 56 BC. It shows Diana on the obverse, while the reverse depicts Sulla being offered an olive branch by his ally Bocchus I. Jugurtha is shown captive on the right.
A Roman marble head of Pompey (now in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Map of the Gallic Wars
The Tusculum portrait, a Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar, Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
The Curia Julia, the senate house started by Julius Caesar in 44 BC and completed by Octavian in 29 BC, replacing the Curia Cornelia as the meeting place of the Senate.
The Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, religious, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government
Detail from the Ahenobarbus relief showing (centre-right) two Roman foot-soldiers c. 122 BC. Note the Montefortino-style helmets with horsehair plume, chain mail cuirasses with shoulder reinforcement, oval shields with calfskin covers, gladius and pilum.
Roman warrior, fresco in Pompeii, ca. 80—20 BC
A Roman naval bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste, c. 120 BC; now in the Museo Pio-Clementino in the Vatican Museums
Temple of Janus as seen in the present church of San Nicola in Carcere, in the Forum Holitorium of Rome, Italy, dedicated by Gaius Duilius after his naval victory at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC
An inscribed funerary relief of Aurelius Hermia and his wife Aurelia Philematum, former slaves who married after their manumission, 80 BC, from a tomb along the Via Nomentana in Rome
The "Togatus Barberini", depicting a Roman senator holding the imagines (effigies) of deceased ancestors in his hands; marble, late 1st century BC; head (not belonging): mid 1st century BC
Ruins of the Aqua Anio Vetus, a Roman aqueduct built in 272 BC
The Temple of Portunus, god of grain storage, keys, livestock and ports. Rome, built between 120 and 80 BC
The tomb of the Flavii, a necropolis outside the Nucerian gate (Porta Nocera) of Pompeii, Italy, constructed 50–30 BC
Denarius of Lucius Caesius, 112–111 BC. On the obverse is Apollo, as written on the monogram behind his head, who also wears the attributes of Vejovis, an obscure deity. The obverse depicts a group of statues representing the Lares Praestites, which was described by Ovid.
Inside the "Temple of Mercury" at Baiae, a swimming pool for a Roman bath, built during the late Roman Republic, and containing one of the largest domes in the world before the building of the Pantheon
Denarius of Caesar, minted just before his murder, in 44 BC. It was the first Roman coin bearing the portrait of a living person. The lituus and culullus depicted behind his head refer to his augurate and pontificate. The reverse with Venus alludes to his claimed descent from the goddess.
The ruins of the Servian Wall, built during the 4th century BC, one of the earliest ancient Roman defensive walls
The Orator, c. 100 BC, an Etrusco-Roman statue of a Republican senator, wearing toga praetexta and senatorial shoes; compared to the voluminous, costly, impractical togas of the Imperial era, the Republican-era type is frugal and "skimpy" (exigua).
Banquet scene, fresco, Herculaneum, Italy, c. 50 BC
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii, built around 70 BC and buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 79 AD, once hosted spectacles with gladiators.

These multiple tensions led to a series of civil wars; the first between the two generals Julius Caesar and Pompey.

At the head of some seventy thousand men, Spartacus led them in a Third Servile War – they sought freedom by escape from Italy – before being defeated by troops raised by M. Licinius Crassus.

From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey

First Triumvirate

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From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
A Roman bust of Marcus Tullius Cicero, depicted here at about age sixty, in the National Archaeological Museum of Spain
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
A Roman bust of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Tusculum portrait, a bust of Julius Caesar in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
A Roman bust of Crassus in the Louvre, Paris, France
Family tree showing the relationship between the three members of the First Triumvirate, as well as their relationships with other prominent members of the Republic.

The First Triumvirate (80-70BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

Map of the Roman Republic in the mid-1st century BC

Caesar's civil war

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One of the last politico-military conflicts of the Roman Republic before its reorganization into the Roman Empire.

One of the last politico-military conflicts of the Roman Republic before its reorganization into the Roman Empire.

Map of the Roman Republic in the mid-1st century BC
Roman world in 56 BC, when Caesar, Crassus and Pompey met at Luca for a conference in which they decided to add another five years to the proconsulship of Caesar in Gaul and to give the province of Syria to Crassus and both Spanish provinces and Africa to Pompey.
Julius Caesar pausing on the banks of the Rubicon
Column of Julius Caesar, where he addressed his army to march on Rome and start the Civil War, Rimini, Italy
Caesar's campaign to Munda

It began as a series of political and military confrontations between Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.

Caesar had allied himself with Crassus and Pompey in the so-called First Triumvirate during his consulship.

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome

Cicero

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Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire.

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
First-century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
The Young Cicero Reading by Vincenzo Foppa (fresco, 1464), now at the Wallace Collection
Arpino, Italy, birthplace of Cicero
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Cicero's death (France, 15th century)
The Vengeance of Fulvia by Francisco Maura y Montaner, 1888 depicting Fulvia inspecting the severed head of Cicero
Cicero about age 60, from a marble bust
Henry VIII's childhood copy of De Officiis, bearing the inscription in his hand, "Thys boke is myne Prynce Henry"
Marci Tullii Ciceronis Opera Omnia (1566)

During the chaotic middle period of the first century BC, marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government.

He joined the army of Pompey in 49 BC and after Pompey's defeat at Pharsalus 48 BC, he was pardoned by Caesar.

Shortly after completing his consulship, in late 62 BC, Cicero arranged the purchase of a large townhouse on the Palatine Hill previously owned by Rome's richest citizen, Marcus Licinius Crassus.

Portrait of Sulla on a denarius minted in 54 BC by his grandson Pompeius Rufus

Sulla

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Roman general and statesman.

Roman general and statesman.

Portrait of Sulla on a denarius minted in 54 BC by his grandson Pompeius Rufus
Denarius minted in Rome, portraying Sulla's first great victory, in which he ended the Jugurthine War: The front depicts Diana wearing a cruciform earring, a double necklace of pearls and pendants, and jewels in her hair, pulled into a knot; crescent above, lituus behind. The reverse shows Sulla seated on a raised seat with a bound Jugurtha kneeling beside him; before him kneels Bocchus, offering an olive branch
Marius as victor over the invading Cimbri
So-called "Sulla", a copy (probably from the time of Augustus) after a portrait of an important Roman from the second century BC, with similarities to the so-called "Marius", suggesting that both statues were conceived and exhibited together as either siblings or rivals; Munich, Glyptothek
Ruins of the town Aeclanum, conquered in 89 BC by Sulla
Bust formerly thought to be of Sulla, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Asia Minor just before the First Mithridatic War
A Roman bust most likely depicting Sulla, a first-century AD copy of an original from 80–50 BC, Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

Later political leaders such as Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force.

In this last rebellion of the Italian allies, Sulla outshone both Marius and the consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (the father of Pompey).

Marcus Licinius Crassus marched with an army from Spain, and would later play a pivotal role at the Colline Gate.

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar, 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer

Gallic Wars

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Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar, 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer
A modern re-enactor in 2012 wearing the gear that a VII legion standard bearer would have during the Gallic Wars era.
The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar
Multi-year overview of the Gallic Wars. The general routes taken by Caesar's army are indicated by the arrows.
The campaigns of 58 BC (In Italian). Note the Roman territory in yellow does not yet include modern day France, the Low Countries, or Germany. Caesar's expeditions are a red line, with battles noted. Celtic cities are in green, Germanic cities in orange.
Campaign map of 57 BC. Territory conquered the previous year is shaded red.
Denarius minted by Decimus Brutus in 48 BC, recalling his service in Gaul. The obverse features the head of Mars, and the reverse shows Gallic carnyces and shields.
Battle of Morbihan (in French, Rome is in red, Veneti in green)
Campaign map of 56 BC. Note Caesar's foray into the north of Gaul, Crassus' campaigns in the south, and the Battle of Morbihan off the west Atlantic coast.
Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)
Campaign map of 55 BC. Note Caesar's crossing of the Rhine, with Germanic counter movements in orange. Aside from the crossing of the Channel, few other actions were carried out that year.
Illustration of the Romans landing in Britain, featuring the standard bearer of the X legion
Campaign map of 54 BC. Tribes that revolted have flame icons near their name. Note the Gallic victory over Sabinus in northern Gaul, and Caesar's rush to relieve Cicero.
Denarius minted by L. Hostilius Saserna, 48 BC, showing the head of a captive Gaul, and a Britonic chariot on the reverse. Coin Expert Michael Crawford rejects the theory of several historians that the head on the obverse is that of Vercingetorix.
Campaign map of 53 BC. Again, revolting tribes are shown with flame icons. Despite having been conquered the prior year, Britain is not shaded in red, as it was not a territorial acquisition: the Britons had only been made tributaries.
Vercingétorix's Memorial in Alesia, where he made his last stand
Campaign map 52 BC. Most of south and central Gaul is in revolt. Note the Gallic victory at the battle of Gergovia, and Caesar's rush north from Rome.
Modern recreation of the Alesia fortifications, featuring rows of stakes in front of a moat, a high banked approach, and regular towers for Roman sentries
Campaign map of 51 BC. The last major revolts are put down, and mop-up operations occur in the southwest.
Gaul in 50 BC: fully conquered.
Gold stater of Vercingetorix, 53–52 BC.
A page from an 1864 printing of the Commentarii, made by Parrish & Willingham, a Confederate publisher during the American Civil War
Denarius from 48 BC, thought to depict an allegory of Gaul with a carnyx on the obverse and Diana of Ephesus with a stag on the reverse

The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgium, along with parts of Germany and the United Kingdom).

Through his influence as part of the First Triumvirate, the political alliance which comprised Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey, and himself, during his consulship, Caesar had secured his assignment as proconsul (governor) to two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, by passage of the Lex Vatinia.

Marcus Licinius Crassus

Battle of Carrhae

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Fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae .

Fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae .

Marcus Licinius Crassus
Extent of the Parthian Empire
Formations at the start of the battle
Relief of a Parthian cataphract attacking a lion using kontos
Roman coin of Augustus (19 BC) showing a Parthian soldier returning the standards captured at Carrhae. Augustus hailed the return of the standards as a political victory over Parthia.
Parthian horseman
Detail from the breastplate of Augustus Prima Porta, showing a Parthian man returning the aquila lost by Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae

An invading force of seven legions of Roman heavy infantry under Marcus Licinius Crassus was lured into the desert and decisively defeated by a mixed cavalry army of heavy cataphracts and light horse archers led by the Parthian general Surena.

The following four-year period of peace between the remaining two members of the Triumvirate, Julius Caesar and Pompey, argues against the view that Crassus had been a peacekeeper within the group and supports the views of most Roman historians that friction between Crassus and Pompey had always been a greater cause of tension than that between Caesar and Pompey.

From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey

Luca Conference

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Meeting of the three Roman generals of the First Triumvirate in 56 BC in Cisalpine Gaul.

Meeting of the three Roman generals of the First Triumvirate in 56 BC in Cisalpine Gaul.

From left to right: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey

Caesar met with his political partners in the First Triumvirate, Pompey and Crassus.

Panel from a representation of a triumph of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius; a winged genius hovers above his head

Roman triumph

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Civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or in some historical traditions, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

Civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or in some historical traditions, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

Panel from a representation of a triumph of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius; a winged genius hovers above his head
Scene from the Triumphs of Caesar by Andrea Mantegna (1482–94, now Royal Collection)
Detail from the Arch of Titus showing his triumph held in 71 for his successful Sack of Jerusalem.
Segment XX of the Fasti triumphales, a portion recording triumphs during the First Punic War
The Triumph of Bacchus, a Roman mosaic from Africa Proconsolaris, dated 3rd century CE, now in the Sousse Archaeological Museum, Tunisia
Flemish tapestry in the smoking room of the Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas
Miniature representation of the emperor Basil II's triumphal procession through the Forum of Constantinople, from the (Madrid Skylitzes)
Charles V announcing the capture of Tunis to Pope Paul III, as imagined in an anonymous sixteenth century tapestry

Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis (birthday).

Julius Caesar claimed Venus as both patron and divine ancestress; he funded a new temple to her and dedicated it during his quadruple triumph of 46 BCE.

In 71 BCE, Crassus earned an ovation for quashing the Spartacus revolt, and increased his honours by wearing a crown of Jupiter's "triumphal" laurel.

Depiction of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus. Fabius was dictator in 217 BC.

Roman dictator

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Extraordinary magistrate in the Roman Republic endowed with full authority to resolve some specific problem to which he had been assigned.

Extraordinary magistrate in the Roman Republic endowed with full authority to resolve some specific problem to which he had been assigned.

Depiction of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus. Fabius was dictator in 217 BC.
Head presumed to be that of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Sulla was dictator from 82–79 BC.
Depiction of the Assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (mid 19th century).

It was later revived in a significantly modified form, first by Sulla between 82 and 79 BC, and then by Julius Caesar between 49 and 44 BC. This later dictatorship was used to effect wide-ranging and semi-permanent changes across Roman society.

One version of the supposed First Catilinarian conspiracy c. 65 BC (which itself is now held in modern scholarship to be fictitious) related by Suetonius would have had the creation of a dictatorship led by Marcus Licinius Crassus with Julius Caesar as magister equitum.

The later consulship of Pompey in 52 BC also is reported to have been initially intended as a dictatorship; it was, however, aborted by his election as sole consul (without colleague) to restore order.