The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
Gaius Marius, Caesar's uncle
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla stripped Caesar of the priesthood.
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
A denarius depicting Julius Caesar, dated to February–March 44 BC—the goddess Venus is shown on the reverse, holding Victoria and a scepter. Caption: CAESAR IMP. M. / L. AEMILIVS BVCA
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests
The Roman Empire by 476
Vercingetorix throws down his arms at the feet of Julius Caesar, painting by Lionel Royer. Musée Crozatier, Le Puy-en-Velay, France.
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy.
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
Cleopatra and Caesar, 1866 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii is probably a depiction of Cleopatra VII as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as Cupid. Its owner Marcus Fabius Rufus most likely ordered its concealment behind a wall in reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Octavian in 30 BC.
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
Green Caesar, posthumous portrait of the 1st century AD, Altes Museum, Berlin
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Statue of Julius Caesar, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Rome
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
La clémence de César, Abel de Pujol, 1808
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Denarius (42 BC) issued by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Lentulus Spinther, depicting the crowned head of Liberty and on the reverse a sacrificial jug and lituus, from the military mint in Smyrna. Caption: C. CASSI. IMP. LEIBERTAS / LENTVLVS SPINT.
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
The senators encircle Caesar, a 19th-century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
The Death of Caesar, Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1867
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Bust of Mark Antony made during the Flavian dynasty (69–96 AD)
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Marc Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral by George Edward Robertson
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Caesar's adopted heir
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
The Chiaramonti Caesar bust, a posthumous portrait in marble, 44–30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
Reliefs of Cleopatra and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II, Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
Julii Caesaris quae exstant (1678)
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
A 1783 edition of The Gallic Wars
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Bust in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
A victor in his four-horse chariot
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war, and subsequently became dictator of Rome from 49 BC until his assassination in 44 BC. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

- Julius Caesar

In the mid-1st century BC, Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC.

- Roman Empire

33 related topics

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Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC

Roman Republic

State of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

State of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
The "Capitoline Brutus", a bust possibly depicting Lucius Junius Brutus, who led the revolt against Rome's last king and was a founder of the Republic.
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, 44 BC
Map showing Roman expansion in Italy.
The Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome, built in the mid 2nd century BC, most likely by Lucius Mummius Achaicus, who won the Achaean War.
Pyrrhus' route in Italy and Sicily.
Bust of Pyrrhus, found in the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Naples Archaeological Museum. Pyrrhus was a brave and chivalrous general who fascinated the Romans, explaining his presence in a Roman house.
Coin of Hiero II of Syracuse.
The Roman Republic before the First Punic War.
Diagram of a corvus.
Denarius of C. Caecilius Metellus Caprarius, 125 BC. The reverse depicts the triumph of his great-grandfather Lucius, with the elephants he had captured at Panormos. The elephant had thence become the emblem of the powerful Caecilii Metelli.
Principal offensives of the war: Rome (red), Hannibal (green), Hasdrubal (purple).
A Carthaginian quarter shekel, perhaps minted in Spain. The obverse may depict Hannibal under the traits of young Melqart. The reverse features one of his famous war elephants.
Roman marble bust of Scipio Africanus, found in the Tomb of the Scipios.
Scene of the Battle of Corinth (146 BC): last day before the Roman legions looted and burned the Greek city of Corinth. The last day on Corinth, Tony Robert-Fleury, 1870.
Bust, traditionally identified as Gaius Marius, instigator of the Marian reforms.
Denarius of Faustus Cornelius Sulla, 56 BC. It shows Diana on the obverse, while the reverse depicts Sulla being offered an olive branch by his ally Bocchus I. Jugurtha is shown captive on the right.
A Roman marble head of Pompey (now in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Map of the Gallic Wars
The Tusculum portrait, a Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar, Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
The Curia Julia, the senate house started by Julius Caesar in 44 BC and completed by Octavian in 29 BC, replacing the Curia Cornelia as the meeting place of the Senate.
The Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, religious, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government
Detail from the Ahenobarbus relief showing (centre-right) two Roman foot-soldiers c. 122 BC. Note the Montefortino-style helmets with horsehair plume, chain mail cuirasses with shoulder reinforcement, oval shields with calfskin covers, gladius and pilum.
Roman warrior, fresco in Pompeii, ca. 80—20 BC
A Roman naval bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste, c. 120 BC; now in the Museo Pio-Clementino in the Vatican Museums
Temple of Janus as seen in the present church of San Nicola in Carcere, in the Forum Holitorium of Rome, Italy, dedicated by Gaius Duilius after his naval victory at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC
An inscribed funerary relief of Aurelius Hermia and his wife Aurelia Philematum, former slaves who married after their manumission, 80 BC, from a tomb along the Via Nomentana in Rome
The "Togatus Barberini", depicting a Roman senator holding the imagines (effigies) of deceased ancestors in his hands; marble, late 1st century BC; head (not belonging): mid 1st century BC
Ruins of the Aqua Anio Vetus, a Roman aqueduct built in 272 BC
The Temple of Portunus, god of grain storage, keys, livestock and ports. Rome, built between 120 and 80 BC
The tomb of the Flavii, a necropolis outside the Nucerian gate (Porta Nocera) of Pompeii, Italy, constructed 50–30 BC
Denarius of Lucius Caesius, 112–111 BC. On the obverse is Apollo, as written on the monogram behind his head, who also wears the attributes of Vejovis, an obscure deity. The obverse depicts a group of statues representing the Lares Praestites, which was described by Ovid.
Inside the "Temple of Mercury" at Baiae, a swimming pool for a Roman bath, built during the late Roman Republic, and containing one of the largest domes in the world before the building of the Pantheon
Denarius of Caesar, minted just before his murder, in 44 BC. It was the first Roman coin bearing the portrait of a living person. The lituus and culullus depicted behind his head refer to his augurate and pontificate. The reverse with Venus alludes to his claimed descent from the goddess.
The ruins of the Servian Wall, built during the 4th century BC, one of the earliest ancient Roman defensive walls
The Orator, c. 100 BC, an Etrusco-Roman statue of a Republican senator, wearing toga praetexta and senatorial shoes; compared to the voluminous, costly, impractical togas of the Imperial era, the Republican-era type is frugal and "skimpy" (exigua).
Banquet scene, fresco, Herculaneum, Italy, c. 50 BC
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii, built around 70 BC and buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius 79 AD, once hosted spectacles with gladiators.

Beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire, Rome's control rapidly expanded during this period—from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

These multiple tensions led to a series of civil wars; the first between the two generals Julius Caesar and Pompey.

Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century

Augustus

The first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

The first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
A denarius from 44 BC, showing Julius Caesar on the obverse and the goddess Venus on the reverse of the coin. Caption: CAESAR IMP. M. / L. AEMILIVS BVCA
The Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini. On 15 March 44 BC, Octavius's adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome
A bust of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated ca. 30 BC. Capitoline Museums, Rome
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the regulation of the Republic". Caption: M. ANT. IMP. AVG. III VIR RPC M. BARBAT. Q. P. / CAESAR IMP. PONT. III VIR PRC. The M. Barbatius Pollio was a moneyer
A denarius minted c. 18 BC. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS; reverse: comet of eight rays with tail upward; DIVVS IVLIV[S] (DIVINE JULIUS).
Fresco paintings inside the House of Augustus, his residence during his reign as emperor.
A denarius of Sextus Pompeius, minted for his victory over Octavian's fleet. Obverse: the place where he defeated Octavian, Pharus of Messina decorated with a statue of Neptune; before that galley adorned with aquila, sceptre & trident; MAG. PIVS IMP. ITER. Reverse, the monster Scylla, her torso of dogs and fish tails, wielding a rudder as a club. Caption: PRAEF[ECTUS] CLAS[SIS] ET ORAE MARIT[IMAE] EX S. C.
Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro, painted 1672, National Maritime Museum, London.
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii, Italy, showing Venus holding a cupid is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as the cupid, similar in appearance to the now lost statue of Cleopatra erected by Julius Caesar in the Temple of Venus Genetrix (within the Forum of Caesar). The owner of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii walled off the room with this painting, most likely in immediate reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Augustus in 30 BC, when artistic depictions of Caesarion would have been considered a sensitive issue for the ruling regime.
Aureus of Octavian, circa 30 BC, British Museum.
Octavian as a magistrate. The statue's marble head was made c. 30–20 BC, the body sculpted in the 2nd century AD (Louvre, Paris).
The Arch of Augustus in Rimini (Ariminum), dedicated to Augustus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC, one of the oldest surviving Roman triumphal arches
Portraits of Augustus show the emperor with idealized features
The Blacas Cameo showing Augustus wearing a gorgoneion on a three layered sardonyx cameo, AD 20–50
Augustus as Jupiter, holding a scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD)
Head of Augustus as pontifex maximus, Roman artwork of the late Augustan period, last decade of the 1st century BC
A colossal statue of Augustus from the Augusteum of Herculaneum, seated and wearing a laurel wreath.
Bust of Augustus wearing the Civic Crown, at Glyptothek, Munich
Bust of Tiberius, a successful military commander under Augustus before he was designated as his heir and successor
Muziris in the Chera Kingdom of Southern India, as shown in the Tabula Peutingeriana, with depiction of a "Temple of Augustus" ("Templum Augusti"), an illustration of Indo-Roman relations in the period
The victorious advance of Hermann, depiction of the 9 AD Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, by Peter Janssen, 1873
Augustus in a late 16th-century copper engraving by Giovanni Battista Cavalieri. From the book Romanorum Imperatorum effigies (1583), preserved in the Municipal Library of Trento (Italy)
The deified Augustus hovers over Tiberius and other Julio-Claudians in the Great Cameo of France
The Mausoleum of Augustus restored (2021)
The Virgin Mary and Child, the prophetess Sibyl Tivoli bottom left and the emperor Augustus in the bottom right, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry. The likeness of Augustus is that of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos
The Augustus cameo at the center of the Medieval Cross of Lothair
Augustus as Roman pharaoh in an Egyptian-style depiction, a stone carving of the Kalabsha Temple in Nubia
Coin of Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the style of Roman emperor Augustus. British Museum. AE dichalkon, Chach, c. first half of 1st. Century, Weight:3.26 gm., Diam:18 mm. Caption: obverse in Greek ΚΟΖΟΛΑ ΚΑΔΑΦΕΣ ΧΟΡΑΝΟΥ ΖΑΟΟΥ, reverse in Kharoshti.
Fragment of a bronze equestrian statue of Augustus, 1st century AD, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus and Octavia, by Jean-Joseph Taillasson, 1787
Coin of Augustus found at the Pudukottai hoard, from an ancient Tamil country, Pandyan Kingdom of present-day Tamil Nadu in India, a testimony to Indo-Roman trade. British Museum. Caption: AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ILIVS]. (The vertical slice, not part of the original design, was likely an old test cut to make sure the coin was solid rather than a fourrée.)
1st century coin of the Himyarite Kingdom, southern coast of the Arabian peninsula. This is also an imitation of a coin of Augustus.
Close up on the sculpted detail of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), 13 BC to 9 BC
The Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne, late 1st century BC
The Meroë Head of Augustus, bronze Roman portraiture bust from Meroë, Kingdom of Kush (Nubia, modern Sudan), 27–25 BC
Portrait of Augustus; Istanbul Archaeology Museums, Turkey

His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated a legacy as one of the greatest leaders in human history.

His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir; as a result, he inherited Caesar's name, estate, and the loyalty of his legions.

Flavian-era bust of Antony

Mark Antony

Flavian-era bust of Antony
Antony's brother Lucius, on a coin issued at Ephesus during his consulship in 41 BC
Hellenistic bust of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes.
The ancient Mediterranean in 50 BC at the end of Caesar's Gallic Wars, with the territory of Rome in yellow.
Cato the Younger, a member of the Optimates faction, was one of the chief architects of the decree which provoked Caesar into civil war.
The Battle of Pharsalus: the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army.
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The Death of Julius Caesar, as depicted by Vincenzo Camuccini. Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC.
"Marc Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral" as depicted by George Edward Robertson
Octavian, Julius Caesar's adopted son. Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination.
A denarius of Marcus Antonius struck in 42 BC
Denarius struck at Ephesus in 41 B.C. commemorating the Second Triumvirate. One on side is Octavian, later Caesar Augustus, and on the other is Antony
The vengeance of Fulvia by Francisco Maura Y Montaner, 1888, depicting Fulvia, Antony's wife, inspecting the severed head of Cicero
First Battle of Philippi – 3 October 42 BC
Second Battle of Philippi – 23 October 42 BC
Antony and Cleopatra (1883) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema depicting Antony's meeting with Cleopatra in 41 BC.
A map of the Parthian Empire. Parthia shared its western border along the Euphrates River with Rome.
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Marcus Antonius (left) and Octavianus (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavianus, Antonius and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC.
A denarius of both Octavianus and Marcus Antonius struck in 41 BC
Antony and Octavia on the obverse of a tetradrachm issued at Ephesus in 39 BC. Antony and his brother-in-law, Octavian, enacted a new treaty that year which redivided control over the Roman world.
A Roman bust of Mark Antony, late 1st century AD, Vatican Museums
A late Ptolemaic or Roman sculpted head of an Alexandrian nobleman, perhaps a depiction of Mark Antony, Brooklyn Museum
A map of the Donations of Alexandria (by Mark Antony to Cleopatra and her children) in 34 BC.
The Battle of Actium (1672) by Laureys a Castro (National Maritime Museum, London)
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii, Italy, showing Venus holding a cupid is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as the cupid, similar in appearance to the now lost statue of Cleopatra erected by Julius Caesar in the Temple of Venus Genetrix (within the Forum of Caesar). The owner of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii walled off the room with this painting, most likely in immediate reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Augustus in 30 BC, when artistic depictions of Caesarion would have been considered a sensitive issue for the ruling regime.
Fragmentary portrait bust from Smyrna thought to depict Octavia, sister of Octavian and Antony's wife
A tetradrachm of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt
Antony (George Coulouris) addresses the crowd in the Mercury Theatre production of Caesar (1937), Orson Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy

Marcus Antonius (14 January 83 BC – 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from a constitutional republic into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Antony was a relative and supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War.

The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.

Cleopatra

Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.

Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.

The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.
Hellenistic Kingdoms that emerged after the death of Alexander the Great
Hellenistic portrait of Ptolemy XII Auletes, the father of Cleopatra, located in the Louvre, Paris
Most likely a posthumously painted portrait of Cleopatra with red hair and her distinct facial features, wearing a royal diadem and pearl-studded hairpins, from Roman Herculaneum, Italy, 1st century AD
The Roman Republic (green) and Ptolemaic Egypt (yellow) in 40 BC
A Roman portrait of Pompey made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original from 70 to 60 BC, and located in the Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
The Tusculum portrait, a contemporary Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar located in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
Cleopatra and Caesar (1866), a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Egyptian portrait of a Ptolemaic queen, possibly Cleopatra, c. 51–30 BC, located in the Brooklyn Museum
Cleopatra's Gate in Tarsos (now Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey), the site where she met Mark Antony in 41 BC
A Roman marble bust of the consul and triumvir Mark Antony, late 1st century AD, Vatican Museums
the 1885 painting
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 43 BC
A denarius minted by Antony in 34 BC with his portrait on the obverse, which bears the inscription reading "ANTONIVS ARMENIA DEVICTA", alluding to his Armenian campaign. The reverse features Cleopatra, with the inscription "CLEOPATR[AE] REGINAE REGVM FILIORVM REGVM". The mention of her children on the reverse refers to the Donations of Alexandria.
A papyrus document dated February 33 BC granting tax exemptions to a person in Egypt and containing the signature of Cleopatra written by an official, but with "γινέσθωι" ( "make it happen" or "so be it") added in Greek, likely by the queen's own hand
A reconstructed statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated c. 30 BC
A Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II in Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra, wearing her royal diadem and consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
The Death of Cleopatra (1658), by Guido Cagnacci
The Death of Cleopatra (1796–1797), by Jean-Baptiste Regnault
Cleopatra on a coin of 40 drachms from 51 to 30 BC, minted at Alexandria; on the obverse is a portrait of Cleopatra wearing a diadem, and on the reverse an inscription reading "ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ" with an eagle standing on a thunderbolt.
Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners (1887), by Alexandre Cabanel
A restructured marble Roman statue of Cleopatra wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, found along the Via Cassia near the, Rome, and now located in the Museo Pio-Clementino
a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra
the Berlin portrait
Cleopatra and Mark Antony on the obverse and reverse, respectively, of a silver tetradrachm struck at the Antioch mint in 36 BC, with Greek legends: BACIΛΙCCA KΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑ ΘΕΑ ΝΕΩΤΕΡΑ, ANTΩNIOC AYTOKPATΩP TPITON TPIΩN ANΔPΩN.
Possible sculpted head of Cleopatra VII wearing an Egyptian-style vulture headdress, discovered in Rome, either Roman or Hellenistic Egyptian art, Parian marble, 1st century BC, from the Capitoline Museums{{sfnp|Fletcher|2008|pp=199–200}}{{sfnp|Ashton|2001a|p=217}}
this painting at Pompeii
woman in the painting
Another painting from Pompeii
depicted Cleopatra committing suicide
the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background
A possible depiction of Mark Antony on the Portland Vase being lured by Cleopatra, straddling a serpent, while Anton, Antony's alleged ancestor, looks on and Eros flies above
Cleopatra and her son Caesarion at the Temple of Dendera
The Banquet of Cleopatra (1744), by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, now in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
depiction of her and Antony
The Triumph of Cleopatra (1821), by William Etty, now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, England
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums{{sfnp|Raia|Sebesta|2017}}{{sfnp|Grout|2017b|}}{{sfnp|Roller|2010|pp=174–175}}
Profile view of the Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum{{sfnp|Raia|Sebesta|2017}}{{sfnp|Grout|2017b|}}{{sfnp|Roller|2010|pp=174–175}}
Profile view of the Berlin Cleopatra
A granite Egyptian bust of Cleopatra from the Royal Ontario Museum, mid-1st century BC
A marble statue of Cleopatra with her cartouche inscribed on the upper right arm and wearing a diadem with a triple uraeus, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art{{sfnp|Ashton|2001b|p=165}}

After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander (336–323 BC).

After losing the 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus in Greece against his rival Julius Caesar (a Roman dictator and consul) in Caesar's Civil War, the Roman statesman Pompey fled to Egypt.

The Assassination of Julius Caesar by William Holmes Sullivan, c. 1888, Royal Shakespeare Theatre

Assassination of Julius Caesar

The Assassination of Julius Caesar by William Holmes Sullivan, c. 1888, Royal Shakespeare Theatre
The Ides of March coin, a Denarius portraying Brutus (obverse), minted in 43–42 BC. The reverse shows a pileus between two daggers, with the legend EID MAR (Eidibus Martiis – on the Ides of March), commemorating the assassination.
Possible bust of Julius Caesar, posthumous portrait in marble, 44–30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums.
The city of Rome, 44 BC
Woodcut manuscript illustration by Johannes Zainer, c. undefined 1474
Deification of Julius Caesar, a 16th-century engraving by Virgil Solis illustrating Ovid's passage on the apotheosis of Caesar (Metamorphoses 15.745–850)
Brutus and the Ghost of Caesar (1802), copperplate engraving by Edward Scriven from a painting by Richard Westall, illustrating Act IV, Scene III, from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar
Aftermath of the attack with Caesar's body abandoned in the foreground, La Mort de César by Jean-Léon Gérôme, c. 1859–1867
The Murder of Caesar by Karl von Piloty, 1865, Lower Saxony State Museum
Mark Antony with the dead body of Caesar, painted by Bela Čikoš Sesija, before 1920
The death of Caesar by Victor Honoré Janssens, c. 1690s
The Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini, between 1804 and 1805.

Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, was assassinated by a group of senators on the Ides of March (15 March) of 44 BC during a meeting of the Senate at the Curia of Pompey of the Theatre of Pompey in Rome where the senators stabbed Caesar 23 times.

The ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators' civil war and ultimately to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.

Anachronistic baroque painting of the battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro, 1672

Battle of Actium

Naval battle fought between a maritime fleet led by Octavian and the combined fleets of both Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII Philopator.

Naval battle fought between a maritime fleet led by Octavian and the combined fleets of both Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII Philopator.

Anachronistic baroque painting of the battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro, 1672
A reconstructed statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated c. 30 BC
A Roman bust of the consul and triumvir Mark Antony, Vatican Museums
Ballistae on a Roman ship
Order of battle.
Plan of the battle by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, Paris, 1734
A (restructured) Roman statue of Cleopatra wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, marble, found near the Tomba di Nerone, Rome along the Via Cassia, Museo Pio-Clementino

As Augustus, he retained the trappings of a restored Republican leader, but historians generally view his consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.

The alliance among Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, commonly known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term at Tarentum in 37 BC. But the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the professed son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a major threat to his power.

Illustration of Suetonius from the Nuremberg Chronicle

Suetonius

Illustration of Suetonius from the Nuremberg Chronicle

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historian who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of 12 successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, probably entitled De vita Caesarum.

The Maison Carrée in Nîmes, one of the best-preserved Roman temples. It is a mid-sized Augustan provincial temple of the imperial cult.

Roman imperial cult

The Roman imperial cult identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.

The Roman imperial cult identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.

The Maison Carrée in Nîmes, one of the best-preserved Roman temples. It is a mid-sized Augustan provincial temple of the imperial cult.
Venus and Mars sculpture group reworked to portray an Imperial couple (created 120–140 AD, reworked 170–175)
Repoussé pendant of Alexander the Great, horned and diademed like Zeus Ammon: images of Alexander were worn as magic charms (4th-century Roman).
Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD)
Augustus in Egyptian style, on the temple of Kalabsha in Egyptian Nubia.
Temple of Augustus and Livia, Vienne (modern France). Originally dedicated to Augustus and Roma. Augustus was deified on his death in 14 AD: his widow Livia was deified in 42 AD by Claudius.
Cameo depicting the apotheosis of Claudius (mid-1st century CE)
The Genius of Domitian, with aegis and cornucopia, found near the Via Labicana, Esquiline
Antinous portrayed as Dionysus in a relief from the area between Anzio et Lanuvium
A denarius of Geta.
The Severan Tondo shows Septimius Severus, his wife Julia Domna, their younger son Caracalla (lower right of picture) and the obliterated image of his murdered co-heir, Geta. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.
The near identical official images of the collegial Imperial Tetrarchs conceal Diocletian's seniority and the internal stresses of his empire.
Dedicatory inscription (CIL 14.04319) to the "numen of the House of the Augustus", from Ostia Antica
Marcus Aurelius as pontifex offers sacrifice to Jupiter Capitolinus in gratitude for victory. Once part of the Arch of Marcus Aurelius. Capitoline Museum, Rome.
A winged genius raises Antoninus Pius and his Empress Faustina in apotheosis, escorted by two eagles. From the column-base of Antoninus Pius, Vatican.
The cult of Mithras was gradually absorbed within Imperial solar monism: sol Invictus is to the left of picture. The plaque was commissioned by an evidently wealthy Imperial slave. Vatican Museum.
Interior of the College of the Augustales at Herculaneum
Livia in the guise of a goddess with cornucopia

It was rapidly established throughout the Empire and its provinces, with marked local variations in its reception and expression.

But the first Roman to become a god, as part of aiming at monarchy, was Julius Caesar.

Map of the Roman Republic in the mid-1st century BC

Caesar's civil war

Map of the Roman Republic in the mid-1st century BC
Roman world in 56 BC, when Caesar, Crassus and Pompey met at Luca for a conference in which they decided to add another five years to the proconsulship of Caesar in Gaul and to give the province of Syria to Crassus and both Spanish provinces and Africa to Pompey.
Julius Caesar pausing on the banks of the Rubicon
Column of Julius Caesar, where he addressed his army to march on Rome and start the Civil War, Rimini, Italy
Caesar's campaign to Munda

Caesar's civil war (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts of the Roman Republic before its reorganization into the Roman Empire.

It began as a series of political and military confrontations between Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.

Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), about 2nd century AD. It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair.

Gladiator

Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), about 2nd century AD. It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair.
Relief of gladiators from Amphitheatre of Mérida, Spain
A retiarius stabs at a secutor with his trident in this mosaic from the villa at Nennig, Germany, c. 2nd–3rd century AD.
A 5th-century mosaic in the Great Palace of Constantinople depicts two venatores fighting a tiger
A Cestus boxer and a rooster in a Roman mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum, Naples, 1st century AD
Pollice Verso ("With a Turned Thumb"), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
A duel, using whip, cudgel and shields, from the Nennig mosaic (Germany)
Mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid showing a retiarius named Kalendio (shown surrendering in the upper section) fighting a secutor named Astyanax. The Ø sign by Kalendio's name implies he was killed after surrendering.
A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo (winning) and a thraex
Gladiators after the fight, José Moreno Carbonero (1882)
Mérida amphitheatre, Spain; mural of beast hunt, showing a venator (or bestiarius) and lioness
The Colosseum in Rome, Italy
Arles Amphitheatre, inside view
The Amphitheatre at Pompeii, depicting the riot between the Nucerians and the Pompeians
Late 3rd century gladiator mosaic from a private residence in Kourion, Cyprus. All the participants are named, including the referee
Detail of the Gladiator Mosaic, 4th century AD
Part of the Gladiator Mosaic, displayed at the Galleria Borghese
Graffito of a gladiatorial scene from Pompeii, Naples
Murmillo gladiator helmet with relief depicting scenes from the Trojan War
Detail of Murmillo helmet with scenes from the Trojan War. Herculaneum, 1st century CE
Helmet found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii
Iron gladiator helmet from Herculaneum
Gladiator helmet found in Pompeii
Helmet from 1st–3rd century
Helmet of a murmillo
Ornate gladiator shin guards from Pompeii
Closeup of Silenus on shin guard
Shin guard depicting the goddess Athena
Shin guard depicting Venus Euploia on a ship shaped like a dolphin
Shin guard with relief of Hercules
Shin guard with relief of Hercules
Bronze spear head found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii
Heart-shaped spear head found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii
Gladiator show fight in Trier in 2005.
Nimes, 2005.
Carnuntum, Austria, 2007.
Musicians with trumpet (tuba), water organ (hydraulis), and horns (cornua), from the Nennig gladiator mosaic

A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

In 65 BC, newly elected curule aedile Julius Caesar held games that he justified as munus to his father, who had been dead for 20 years.