July 3

3 July3
* 324 – Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium.wikipedia
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1778 – American Revolutionary War: Iroquois allied to Britain kill 360 people in the Wyoming Valley massacre.
July 3 – American Revolutionary War – The Wyoming Massacre takes place near Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, ending in a terrible defeat of the local colonists.


1775 – American Revolutionary War: George Washington takes command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
July 3 – American Revolution: George Washington takes command of the 17,000-man Continental Army at Cambridge.


324 – Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium.
July 3 – Battle of Adrianople: Emperor Constantine the Great defeats his rival Licinius near Adrianople, forcing him to retreat to Byzantium. He invades Thrace with a Visgothic force and raids the countryside. This sees Constantine ruling as sole Emperor.


1608 – Québec City is founded by Samuel de Champlain.
July 3 – The settlement of Quebec City is founded by Samuel de Champlain.


year of the fortress' foundation
1754 – French and Indian War: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French forces.
July 3 – French and Indian War – Battle of Fort Necessity: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French Capt. Louis Coulon de Villiers.


987 – Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, the first of the Capetian dynasty that would rule France until the French Revolution in 1792.
July 3 – Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, is elected and crowned King of France at Noyon (Picardy), by Adalbero (Archbishop of Reims). He becomes the first monarch of the Capetian Dynasty, who rules the kingdom until 1328. Empress-regent Theophanu (the mother of Otto III) leads an expedition to Lower Lorraine, to ensure it remains as part of the Holy Roman Empire.


1884 – Dow Jones & Company publishes its first stock average.
July 3 – The Dow Jones Transportation Average, consisting of eleven transportation-related companies (nine railroads and two non-rail companies, Western Union and Pacific Mail), is created. The index is the oldest stock index still in use.


other events of 1938Three years later
1938 – World speed record for a steam locomotive is set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of 125.88 mph.
July 3


1844 – The last pair of great auks is killed.
July 3


1886 – Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, the first purpose-built automobile.
July 3 – Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen.


Other events of 1952
1952 – The Constitution of Puerto Rico is approved by the United States Congress.
July 3 – The ocean liner SS United States makes her maiden crossing of the Atlantic.


other events of 1898Events of 1898late 19th century
1898 – A Spanish squadron, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, is defeated by an American squadron under William T. Sampson in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba.
July 3


1767 – Pitcairn Island is discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn on an expeditionary voyage commanded by Philip Carteret.
July 3


5704other events of 1944
1944 – World War II: Minsk is liberated from Nazi control by Soviet troops during Operation Bagration.
July 3 – WWII:


1866 – Austro-Prussian War is decided at the Battle of Königgrätz, resulting in Prussia taking over as the prominent German nation from Austria.
July 3 – Battle of Königgrätz: the Prussian army under King Wilhelm and Helmuth von Moltke defeats the Austrian army of Ludwig von Benedek, leading to a decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War.


Other events of 1988
1988 – United States Navy warship shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.
July 3


Other events of 19791979 Nobel Prize laureate
1979 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.
July 3 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.


1969 – Space Race: The biggest explosion in the history of rocketry occurs when the Soviet N-1 rocket explodes and subsequently destroys its launchpad.
July 3 – Brian Jones, musician and founder of The Rolling Stones, drowns in his swimming pool at his home in Sussex, England.


1863 – American Civil War: The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminates with Pickett's Charge.
July 1–3 – American Civil War: Battle of Gettysburg – Union forces under George G. Meade turn back a Confederate invasion by Robert E. Lee in the largest battle of the war (28,000 Confederate casualties, 23,000 Union).


Other events of 19671967.
1967 – The Aden Emergency: The Battle of the Crater in which the British Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders retake the Crater district following the Arab Police mutiny.
July 3 – A military rebellion led by Belgian mercenary Jean Schramme begins in Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo.


2013 – Egyptian coup d'état: President of Egypt Mohamed Morsi is overthrown by the military after four days of protests all over the country calling for Morsi's resignation, to which he didn't respond. President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour is declared acting president.
July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup d'état, leading to widespread violence.


1849 – France invades the Roman Republic and restores the Papal States.
July 3 – French troops occupy Rome; the Roman Republic surrenders.


9Other events of 1996
1996 – Stone of Scone is returned to Scotland.
July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.


1883 – Franz Kafka, Czech-Austrian author (d. 1924)
July 3 – The disaster in Glasgow leaves 124 dead.


other events of 1913
1913 – Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenact Pickett's Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they are met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors.
July 3 – Dorothy Kilgallen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1965)