July Crisis

July Ultimatumultimatum to SerbiaJuly Crisis of 1914ultimatumAustrian ultimatum to SerbiaBalkan crisis of 1914declared waran ultimatumAustro-Hungarian threatsAustro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the ultimate cause of World War I. The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.wikipedia
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World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the ultimate cause of World War I.
On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis.

Gavrilo Princip

Principa Serbian nationalistGavrila Principa
The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Princip and his accomplices were arrested and implicated a Serbian nationalist secret society, which initiated the July Crisis and led to the outbreak of World War I.

Causes of World War I

causes of the warorigins of World War Icause of World War I
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the ultimate cause of World War I.
The immediate causes lay in decisions made by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of 1914.

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austriaassassinationassassinated
The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
The assassination led directly to World War I when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, which was partially rejected.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
However, it was wary of the reaction of the Russian Empire, who were a major supporter of Serbia, so sought a guarantee from its ally Germany that it would support Austria in any conflict.
When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.

Dragutin Dimitrijević

Dragutin Dimitrijević ApisApisDragutin "Apis" Dimitrijević
The "military party" was a reference to Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence, Dragutin Dimitrijević and the officers he led in the 1903 murder of the King and Queen of Serbia.
Dimitrijević later led the Black Hand society responsible for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, which led to the July Crisis and the outbreak of World War I.

Nedeljko Čabrinović

a bombNedeljko CabrinovicČabrinović, Nedeljko
At 10:10 a.m., Nedeljko Čabrinović threw a hand grenade at Ferdinand's motorcade.
In response, Austria-Hungary issued a démarche to Serbia known as the July Ultimatum, leading to the outbreak of World War I.

Karl von Stürgkh

Count Karl von StürgkhAustria's prime ministerCount Karl Graf von Stürgkh
On 1 July, Berchtold told Conrad that Emperor Franz Joseph would await the criminal inquiry results, that István Tisza, Prime Minister of Hungary, was opposed to war, and that Karl von Stürgkh, Prime Minister of Austria, hoped that the criminal inquiry would provide a proper basis for action.
Karl von Stürgkh (30 October 1859 – 21 October 1916) was an Austrian politician and Minister-President of Cisleithania during the 1914 July Crisis that led to the outbreak of World War I.

Miroslav Spalajković

Immediately following the assassinations, Serbian envoy to France Milenko Vesnić and Serbian envoy to Russia Miroslav Spalajković put out statements claiming that Serbia had warned Austria-Hungary of the impending assassination.
Miroslav Spalajković (18 April 1869 – 4 February 1951) was a Serbian diplomat, best known for his actions as the envoy to the Russian Empire in Saint Petersburg during the July Crisis of the summer of 1914.

Alexander, Count of Hoyos

Count HoyosCount von HoyosAlexander Graf von Hoyos, Freiherr zu Stichsenstein
On 1 July, Viktor Naumann, a German journalist and friend of German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow, approached Berchtold's chief of cabinet, Alexander, Count of Hoyos.
Ludwig Alexander Georg Graf von Hoyos, Freiherr zu Stichsenstein (13 May 1876 – 20 October 1937) was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat who played a major role during the July Crisis while serving as chef de cabinet of the Foreign Minister at the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky

Prince LichnowskyKarl Max von LichnowskyKarl Max
That same day, British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey was warned by the German Ambassador in London, Prince Lichnowsky, of the dangerous situation in the Balkans.
Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky (Kreuzenort, Upper Silesia, Prussia [now Krzyżanowice, Poland], 8 March 1860 – Kuchelna, Czechsoslovakia, 27 February 1928) was a German diplomat who served as ambassador to Britain during the July Crisis and who was the author of a 1916 pamphlet that deplored German diplomacy in mid-1914 which, he argued, contributed heavily to the outbreak of the First World War.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm
The next day, German Ambassador Heinrich von Tschirschky spoke to Emperor Franz Joseph and stated that it was his estimate that Wilhelm II would support resolute, well-thought-out action by Austria-Hungary with regard to Serbia.
His turbulent reign ultimately culminated in his guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary during the crisis of July 1914, resulting in the outbreak of World War I.

Leopold Berchtold

Count Leopold BerchtoldCount BerchtoldCount von Berchtold
This was especially true of Foreign Minister Leopold Berchtold; in October 1913, his ultimatum to Serbia made them back down over the occupation of Northern Albania, which gave him confidence it would work again.
If Count Berchtold had been accused of indecisiveness and diffidence during the Balkan Wars, he gave proof of more resolve during the July Crisis.

Count Otto von Czernin

Count CzerninCount Otto Czernin von und zu ChudenitzOtto
The next day, Austrian chargé d'affaires Count Otto von Czernin proposed to Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov that the instigators of the plot against Ferdinand needed to be investigated within Serbia, but he too was rebuffed.
Before the war, Count von Czernin served as a Counselor to the Embassy in St. Petersburg and served as Chargé d'Affaires during the first weeks of the July Crisis as the Ambassador Count von Szapáry was absent due to the illness of his wife.

Eduard von Capelle

At another meeting held on 5 July, this one at Potsdam palace, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Foreign Ministry's State Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, the Minister of War Erich von Falkenhayn, the head of the German Imperial Military Cabinet Moriz von Lyncker, the Adjutant general Hans von Plessen, Captain Hans Zenker of the Naval General Staff, and Admiral Eduard von Capelle of the Naval State Secretariat all endorsed Wilhelm's "blank cheque" as Germany's best policy.
During the July Crisis that instigated World War I, Capelle was temporarily the acting state secretary, as Tirpitz was away at his summer home.

Nikola Pašić

Nikola PasicPašićPasic
Because Serbian elections were scheduled for 14 August, Prime Minister Nikola Pašić was unwilling to court unpopularity by being seen to bow down to Austria.
Austria presented him the July Ultimatum, written together with the envoys of the German ambassadors in such a vein which pro-Serbians claim that no country could accept it.

Raymond Poincaré

PoincaréRaymond PoincarePoincare
On 12 July, Berchtold showed Tschirschky the contents of his ultimatum containing "unacceptable demands", and promised to present it to the Serbs after the Franco-Russian summit between President Poincaré and Nicholas II was over.
He single-handedly controlled French foreign policy from 1912 to the beginning of World War I, being noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to repair Franco-Russian relations, which had become strained over the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911, and giving France's support for Russian military mobilization during the July Crisis of 1914.

Oskar Potiorek

General Oskar PotiorekGeneral PotiorekOskar Potoriek
Oskar Potiorek was the military commander and governor of the province.
When the assassination and the succeeding July Crisis led to the outbreak of World War I, he became the commander of all Austro-Hungarian forces on the Balkans.

Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf

Conrad von HötzendorfCount Franz Conrad von HötzendorfFranz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf
Members of the "War Party", like Conrad von Hötzendorf, Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff saw it as an opportunity to destroy Serbia's ability to interfere in Bosnia.
He was in charge during the July Crisis of 1914 that caused World War I.

Baron Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen

Wladimir Giesl von GieslingenBaron von GieslBaron Giesl von Gieslingen
On 23 July, the Austrian Minister in Belgrade, Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, presented the ultimatum to the Serbian government.
Wladimir Rudolf Karl Freiherr Giesl von Gieslingen (18 February 1860 – 20 April 1936) was an Austro-Hungarian general and diplomat during World War I, most famous for delivering the ultimatum to the Serbian government during the July Crisis of 1914.

Gottlieb von Jagow

Count von JagowForeign Minister von JagowJagow
On 1 July, Viktor Naumann, a German journalist and friend of German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow, approached Berchtold's chief of cabinet, Alexander, Count of Hoyos.
During the July Crisis on 6 July 1914, Jagow was confident that an Austro-Serbian war would be localized, and that Russia was not yet prepared for a continental war.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Archduke Franz FerdinandFranz FerdinandArchduke Ferdinand
The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Emperor Franz Joseph ordered Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, to attend military exercises due to be held in Bosnia.

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg

Theobald von Bethmann HollwegBethmann-HollwegBethmann Hollweg
At another meeting held on 5 July, this one at Potsdam palace, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Foreign Ministry's State Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, the Minister of War Erich von Falkenhayn, the head of the German Imperial Military Cabinet Moriz von Lyncker, the Adjutant general Hans von Plessen, Captain Hans Zenker of the Naval General Staff, and Admiral Eduard von Capelle of the Naval State Secretariat all endorsed Wilhelm's "blank cheque" as Germany's best policy. Wilhelm added that he needed to consult with Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, who he was quite sure would have a similar view.
The crisis came to a head on 5 July 1914 when the Count Hoyos Mission arrived in Berlin in response to Berchtold's plea for friendship.

Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph IFranz JosephEmperor Franz Joseph
Emperor Franz Joseph ordered Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, to attend military exercises due to be held in Bosnia.
The ultimate resolution of deliberations by the Austrian government during the weeks following the assassination of the Archduke was to give Serbia an ultimatum of itemized demands with which it was virtually certain Serbia would be unable or unwilling to comply, thus serving as a "legal basis for war."

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon

Sir Edward GreyEdward GreySir Edward Grey, Bt
That same day, British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey was warned by the German Ambassador in London, Prince Lichnowsky, of the dangerous situation in the Balkans.
In 1914, Grey played a key role in the July Crisis leading to the outbreak of World War I.