July Crisis

ultimatum to SerbiaultimatumBalkan crisis of 1914declared wardiplomatic crisisJuly Crisis of 1914July UltimatumAustrian ultimatum to SerbiaAustro-Hungarian threatsAustro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the penultimate cause of World War I. The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.wikipedia
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World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the penultimate cause of World War I.
On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis.

Causes of World War I

causes of the warorigins of World War Ia variety of reasons
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the penultimate cause of World War I.
The immediate causes lay in decisions made by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of 1914.

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

assassinationassassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austriaassassinated
The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
The assassination led directly to the First World War when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, which was partially rejected.

Gavrilo Princip

Principa Serbian nationalistGavrila Principa
The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Princip and his accomplices were arrested and implicated the Serbian nationalist secret society known as the Black Hand, leading Austria-Hungary to issue a démarche to Serbia known as the July Ultimatum.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial German
However, it was wary of the reaction of the Russian Empire, who were a major supporter of Serbia, so sought a guarantee from its ally Germany that it would support Austria in any conflict.
When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.

Dragutin Dimitrijević

ApisDragutin Dimitrijević ApisDragutin "Apis" Dimitrijević
The "military party" was a reference to Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence, Dragutin Dimitrijević and the officers he led in the 1903 murder of the King and Queen of Serbia.
The latter triggered the July Crisis which led to the outbreak of World War I.

Nedeljko Čabrinović

a bombČabrinović, Nedeljko
At 10:10 a.m., Nedeljko Čabrinović threw a hand grenade at Ferdinand's motorcade.
In response, Austria-Hungary issued a démarche to Serbia known as the July Ultimatum, leading to the outbreak of World War I.

Karl von Stürgkh

Count Karl von StürgkhAustria's prime ministerCount Karl Graf von Stürgkh
On 1 July, Berchtold told Conrad that Emperor Franz Joseph would await the criminal inquiry results, that István Tisza, Prime Minister of Hungary, was opposed to war, and that Karl von Stürgkh, Prime Minister of Austria, hoped that the criminal inquiry would provide a proper basis for action.
Karl von Stürgkh (30 October 1859 – 21 October 1916) was an Austrian politician and Minister-President of Cisleithania during the 1914 July Crisis that led to the outbreak of World War I.

Miroslav Spalajković

Immediately following the assassinations, Serbian envoy to France Milenko Vesnić and Serbian envoy to Russia Miroslav Spalajković put out statements claiming that Serbia had warned Austria-Hungary of the impending assassination.
Miroslav Spalajković (18 April 1869 – 4 February 1951) was a Serbian diplomat, best known for his actions as the envoy to the Russian Empire in Saint Petersburg during the July Crisis of the summer of 1914.

Alexander, Count of Hoyos

Count HoyosCount von HoyosAlexander Graf von Hoyos, Freiherr zu Stichsenstein
On 1 July, Viktor Naumann, a German journalist and friend of German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow, approached Berchtold's chief of cabinet, Alexander, Count of Hoyos.
Ludwig Alexander Georg Graf von Hoyos, Freiherr zu Stichsenstein (13 May 1876 – 20 October 1937) was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat who played a major role during the July Crisis while serving as chef de cabinet of the Foreign Minister at the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky

Prince LichnowskyKarl Max von LichnowskyKarl Max
That same day, British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey was warned by the German Ambassador in London, Prince Lichnowsky of the dangerous situation in the Balkans.
Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky (Karl Max Fürst von Lichnowsky) (Kreuzenort, Upper Silesia (now Krzyżanowice, Poland), 8 March 1860 – Kuchelna, 27 February 1928) was a German diplomat who served as Ambassador to Britain during the July Crisis and who was the author of a noted pamphlet of 1916 that deplored German diplomacy in mid-1914 that, he argued, directly caused the outbreak of the First World War.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm
The next day, German Ambassador Heinrich von Tschirschky spoke to Emperor Franz Joseph and stated that it was his estimate that Wilhelm II would support resolute, well-thought-out action by Austria-Hungary with regard to Serbia.
He also launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914, that led in a matter of days to World War I.

Leopold Berchtold

Count BerchtoldCount von BerchtoldBerchtold
This was especially true of Foreign Minister Leopold Berchtold; in October 1913, his ultimatum to Serbia made them back down over the occupation of Northern Albania, which gave him confidence it would work again.
If Count Berchtold had been accused of indecisiveness and diffidence during the Balkan Wars, he gave proof of more resolve during the July Crisis.

Count Otto von Czernin

Count CzerninCount Otto Czernin von und zu ChudenitzOtto
The next day, Austrian chargé d'afaires Count Otto von Czernin proposed to Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov that the instigators of the plot against Ferdinand needed to be investigated within Serbia, but he too was rebuffed.
Before the war, Count von Czernin served as a Counselor to the Embassy in St. Petersburg and served as Chargé d'Affaires during the first weeks of the July Crisis as the Ambassador Count von Szapáry was absent due to the illness of his wife.

Raymond Poincaré

PoincaréPoincareFrench president Poincaré
On 12 July, Berchtold showed Tschirschky the contents of his ultimatum containing "unacceptable demands", and promised to present it to the Serbs after the Franco-Russian summit between President Poincaré and Nicholas II was over. French President Raymond Poincaré and Prime Minister René Viviani departed for Saint Petersburg on 15 July, arrived on 20 July and departed on 23 July.
He attempted to wield influence from what was normally a figurehead role, being noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to repair Franco-Russian relations, which had become strained over the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911, and playing an important role in the July Crisis of 1914.

Eduard von Capelle

At another meeting held on 5 July, this one at Potsdam palace, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Foreign Ministry's State Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, the Minister of War Erich von Falkenhayn, the head of the German Imperial Military Cabinet Moriz von Lyncker, the Adjutant general Hans von Plessen, Captain Hans Zenker of the Naval General Staff, and Admiral Eduard von Capelle of the Naval State Secretariat all endorsed Wilhelm's "blank cheque" as Germany's best policy.
During the July Crisis that instigated World War I, Capelle was temporarily the acting state secretary, as Tirpitz was away at his summer home.

Nikola Pašić

PašićPasicNikola Pašic
Because Serbian elections were scheduled for 14 August, Prime Minister Nikola Pašić was unwilling to court unpopularity by being seen to bow down to Austria.
Austria presented him the July Ultimatum, written together with the envoys of the German ambassadors in such a vein which pro-Serbians claim that no country could accept it. After extensive consultations in country itself and formidable pressure from outside to accept it, Pašić told the Austrian ambassador Giesl (who had already packed his bags) that Serbia accepts all the ultimatum demands except that Austrian police can independently travel throughout Serbia and conduct its own investigation.

Oskar Potiorek

General Potiorek
Oskar Potiorek was the military commander and governor of the province.
When the assassination and the succeeding July Crisis led to the outbreak of World War I, he became the commander of all Austro-Hungarian forces on the Balkans.

Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf

Conrad von HötzendorfConradGeneral Conrad von Hötzendorf
Conrad himself was pressuring the Dual Monarchy for "haste" in starting a war, in order to prevent Serbia from "smelling a rat and herself volunteering compensation, perhaps under pressure from France and Russia".
He was in charge during the July Crisis of 1914 that caused World War I.

Baron Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen

Baron von GieslBaron Giesl von GieslingenWladimir Freiherr Giesl von Gieslingen
On 23 July, the Austrian Minister in Belgrade, Baron Giesl von Gieslingen, presented the ultimatum to the Serbian government.
Wladimir Rudolf Karl Freiherr Giesl von Gieslingen (18 February 1860 – 20 April 1936), was an Austro-Hungarian general and diplomat during World War I, most famous for delivering the ultimatum to the Serbian government during the July Crisis of 1914.

Gottlieb von Jagow

Count von JagowForeign Minister von JagowJagow
On 1 July, Viktor Naumann, a German journalist and friend of German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow, approached Berchtold's chief of cabinet, Alexander, Count of Hoyos.
During the July Crisis on 6 July 1914, Jagow was confident that an Austro-Serbian war would be localized, and that Russia was not yet prepared for a continental war.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Archduke Franz FerdinandFranz FerdinandArchduke Ferdinand
The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
July Crisis

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg

Bethmann-Hollwegvon Bethmann-HollwegBethmann Hollweg
At another meeting held on 5 July, this one at Potsdam palace, German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Foreign Ministry's State Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, the Minister of War Erich von Falkenhayn, the head of the German Imperial Military Cabinet Moriz von Lyncker, the Adjutant general Hans von Plessen, Captain Hans Zenker of the Naval General Staff, and Admiral Eduard von Capelle of the Naval State Secretariat all endorsed Wilhelm's "blank cheque" as Germany's best policy. Wilhelm added that he needed to consult with Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg who he was quite sure would have a similar view.
The crisis came to a head on 5 July 1914 when the Count Hoyos Mission arrived in Berlin in response to Berchtold's plea for friendship.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon

Sir Edward GreyEdward GreyGrey
That same day, British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey was warned by the German Ambassador in London, Prince Lichnowsky of the dangerous situation in the Balkans.
In 1914, Grey played a key role in the July Crisis leading to the outbreak of World War I.

René Viviani

VivianiFrench Prime Minister Viviani
French President Raymond Poincaré and Prime Minister René Viviani departed for Saint Petersburg on 15 July, arrived on 20 July and departed on 23 July.
During the July Crisis, he was largely dominated by President Poincaré.