Juris Doctor

J.D.JDJuris Doctoratelaw degreeDoctor of JurisprudenceJ.Ddr.juris(J.D.)J.D. degreedoctorate of jurisprudence
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.wikipedia
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Law school

School of Lawlawlaw schools
The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, Canada, the United States, and some other common law countries.
The typical law degree required to practice law in Canada is now the Juris Doctor, which requires previous university coursework and is similar to the first law degree in the United States.

Doctorate

doctoraldoctoral degreedoctorate degree
It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate (in contrast to a research doctorate) in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada (in all three jurisdictions the same as other professional degrees such as M.D. or D.D.S./D.M.D., the degrees required to be a practicing physician or dentist, respectively).
Following the MD, the next professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor (J.D.), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902.

Law

legallawslegal theory
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.
Modern lawyers achieve distinct professional identity through specified legal procedures (e.g. successfully passing a qualifying examination), are required by law to have a special qualification (a legal education earning the student a Bachelor of Laws, a Bachelor of Civil Law, or a Juris Doctor degree.

Harvard Law School

Harvard LawHarvardHarvard University Law School
Christopher Columbus Langdell, who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States.
Each class in the three-year J.D. program has approximately 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States.

University of Chicago Law School

University of ChicagoLaw SchoolUniversity of Chicago School of Law
The University of Chicago Law School was the first to offer the J.D. While approval was still pending at Harvard, the degree was introduced at many other law schools including at the law schools at NYU, Berkeley, Michigan and Stanford.
It employs more than 200 full-time and part-time faculty and hosts more than 600 students in its Juris Doctor program, while also offering the Master of Laws, Master of Studies in Law and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees in law.

Master of Laws

LL.M.LLMLL.M
Following standard modern academic practice, Harvard Law School refers to its Master of Laws and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees as its graduate level law degrees.
While in most common law countries a Bachelor of Laws (or LL.B.) is required, the U.S. and Canada generally require a professional doctorate, or Juris Doctor, to practice law.

Legal education

law studentlawProfessor of Law
Christopher Columbus Langdell, who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States.
In the United States and Canada, the primary law degree is a graduate degree known as the Juris Doctor (JD).

Doctor of Juridical Science

S.J.D.J.S.D.SJD
Following standard modern academic practice, Harvard Law School refers to its Master of Laws and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees as its graduate level law degrees.
As a research doctorate, it follows professional training in law (LL.B. or J.D.) and the first graduate degree in law (Master of Laws).

Bachelor of Laws

LL.B.LLBLL.B
Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law and first denominated LL.B., it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. The traditional law degree in Australia is the undergraduate Bachelor of Laws (LLB); however, there has been a huge shift towards the JD in the past five years, with some Australian universities now offering a JD programme, including the country's best ranked universities (e.g. The University of New South Wales, the University of Sydney, the Australian National University, the University of Melbourne and Monash University ).
It historically served this purpose in North America as well but was phased out in favour of the Juris Doctor degree.

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

University of Maryland School of LawUniversity of Maryland Law SchoolUniversity of Maryland
The first university law programs in the United States, such as that of the University of Maryland established in 1812, included much theoretical and philosophical study, including works such as the Bible, Cicero, Seneca, Aristotle, Adam Smith, Montesquieu and Grotius.
There are approximately 705 students enrolled at Maryland Law in the Juris Doctor (J.D.), Master of Laws (LL.M.), and Master of Science in Law (M.S.L.) programs combined.

Bachelor's degree

bachelorbaccalaureatebachelor’s degree
It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate (in contrast to a research doctorate) in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada (in all three jurisdictions the same as other professional degrees such as M.D. or D.D.S./D.M.D., the degrees required to be a practicing physician or dentist, respectively).
The Bachelor of Science in Law degree (BScL) is a special-purpose degree that allows someone who has had some prior studies but has not achieved a bachelor's degree to resume his or her education and take up the study of law with the goal of eventually receiving the juris doctor degree.

Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law (doctores legum) followed by canon law (doctores decretorum); these were not professional degrees but rather indicated that their holders had been approved to teach at the universities.
In Canada, first professional degrees such as DDS, MD, PharmD and LLB or JD are considered bachelor's level qualifications, despite their often being named as if they were doctorates.

Legum Doctor

LL.D.LLDLL.D
The J.D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Laws or Legum Doctor (LLD or LL.D.).

Master's degree

mastermasters degreeMasters
It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate (in contrast to a research doctorate) in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada (in all three jurisdictions the same as other professional degrees such as M.D. or D.D.S./D.M.D., the degrees required to be a practicing physician or dentist, respectively).
In Australia, some extended master's degrees use the title "doctor": Juris doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry, Optometry and Veterinary Practice.

Silliman University College of Law

In 2009, the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) and the Silliman University College of Law also shifted their respective LL.B Programs to Juris Doctor -applying the change to incoming freshmen students for School Year 2009–2010.
When the college opened, it offered a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) program, but in 2009 it shifted its offering to Juris Doctor (JD).

Australian National University

ANUThe Australian National UniversityCanberra School of Art
The traditional law degree in Australia is the undergraduate Bachelor of Laws (LLB); however, there has been a huge shift towards the JD in the past five years, with some Australian universities now offering a JD programme, including the country's best ranked universities (e.g. The University of New South Wales, the University of Sydney, the Australian National University, the University of Melbourne and Monash University ).
In addition to numerous research programs, the College offers the professional LL.B. and J.D. degrees.

University of Toronto Faculty of Law

Faculty of LawUniversity of Toronto Law SchoolUniversity of Toronto
The University of Toronto became the first to rename its law degree from LL.B. to J.D. in 2001.
In 2001, the Faculty of Law became the first law school in Canada to offer the Juris Doctor (JD) designation rather than the Bachelor of Laws (LLB).

Ateneo School of Law

Ateneo Law SchoolAteneo de Manila Law SchoolAteneo de Manila University Law School
The degree was first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo de Manila Law School, which first developed the model program later adopted by most schools now offering the J.D.. After the Ateneo, schools such as the University of Batangas College of Law, University of St. La Salle - College of Law, and the De La Salle Lipa College of Law began offering the J.D., with schools such as the Far Eastern University Institute of Law offering with De La Salle University's Ramon V. Del Rosario College of Business for the country's first J.D. - MBA program.
The law school's primary academic offering is the 4-year law program leading to the degree of Juris Doctor.

Doctor of Law

Doctor of LawsLL.D.LLD
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.
The application of the term varies from country to country and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D), Doctor juris (Dr.

Michele Bachmann

Bachmann, MicheleBachmannBachmann for Congress
The Wall Street Journal notes specifically in its stylebook that "Lawyers, despite their J.D. degrees, aren't called doctor, although the title is often used (if preferred) for holders of the Ed.D., D.D.S., D.O., M.D., O.D., and Ph.D. Many other newspapers reserve the title for physicians or do not use titles at all. In 2011, Mother Jones published an article claiming that Michele Bachmann was misrepresenting her qualifications by using the "bogus" title Dr. based on her J.D. They later amended the article to note that the use of the title by lawyers "is a (begrudgingly) accepted practice in some states and not in others", although they maintained that it was rarely used as it "suggests that you're a medical doctor or a Ph.D.—and therefore conveys a false level of expertise".
In 1986 Bachmann received a J.D. degree from Oral Roberts University.

Law school in the United States

law schoolAmerican law schoolslaw schools
Law schools in the U.S. confer the Juris Doctor degree (J.D.), which is a professional doctorate, and is the highest degree necessary to practice law in the United States, and the final degree obtained by most practitioners in the field.

Postgraduate Certificate in Laws

PCLLP.C.LL.Postgraduate Certificate in Laws (PCLL)
Neither the LL.B. nor the J.D. provides the education sufficient for a license to practice, as graduates of both are also required to undertake the PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.

University of the Philippines College of Law

College of LawUP College of LawU.P. College of Law
In 2008, the University of the Philippines College of Law began conferring the J.D. on its graduates, the school choosing rename its LL.B. program into a J.D. because to accurately reflect the nature of education the university provides as "nomenclature does not accurately reflect the fact that the LL.B. is a professional as well as a post baccalaureate degree."
The College first conferred the Juris Doctor (J.D.) on its April 2008 graduates, after a change in degree title was approved by the U.P. administration the previous year.

Australian Qualifications Framework

AQFCertificateCertificate II
On the Australian Qualifications Framework, the Juris Doctor is classified as a "Masters degree (Extended)", with an exception having been granted to use the title Juris Doctor (other such exceptions include Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dentistry and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine).
Those in legal practice may use the name Juris Doctor, but do not allow a graduate use of the honorific title 'doctor'.

Admission to practice law

admitted to the baradmission to the baradmitted
In terms of academic requirements, one must have obtained an undergraduate degree (with major, focus or concentration in any of the subjects of History, Economics, Political Science, Logic, English or Spanish), has obtained a Bachelor of Laws degree (or equivalent such as Juris Doctor) from a law school recognized by the Secretary of Education.