Justice

justequitycivil justicecivilFairnessjudicialfairtheory of justiceunjustAdministration of Justice
Justice, in its broadest context, includes both the attainment of that which is just and the philosophical discussion of that which is just.wikipedia
1,483 Related Articles

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness.
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime.

Law

legallawslegal theory
The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness.
Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.

Restorative justice

restorativerestorationcorrective justice
Restorative justice (also sometimes called "reparative justice") is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of victims and offenders.
Restorative justice is an approach to justice in which one of the responses to a crime is to organize a meeting between the victim and the offender, sometimes with representatives of the wider community.

Right to property

property rightsproperty rightproperty
Property rights theorists (like Robert Nozick) also take a consequentialist view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system.
Not in opposition but in contrast to this, some proposals also defend a universal right to private property, in the sense of a right of every person to effectively receive a certain amount of property, grounded in a claim to Earth's natural resources or other theories of justice.

Nicomachean Ethics

EthicsEthica NicomacheaAristotle's ''Ethics
Early theories of justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work The Republic, and Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics.
The first philosopher to write ethical treatises, Aristotle argues that the correct approach for studying such controversial subjects as Ethics or Politics, which involve discussing what is beautiful or just, is to start with what would be roughly agreed to be true by people of good up-bringing and experience in life, and to work from there to a higher understanding.

Good and evil

goodgood versus evilgoodness
Lovers of wisdom – philosophers, in one sense of the term – should rule because only they understand what is good.
John Rawls' book A Theory of Justice prioritized social arrangements and goods based on their contribution to justice.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Early theories of justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work The Republic, and Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics. In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City State. A meditation on the Divine command theory by Plato can be found in his dialogue, Euthyphro.
Just as individual tables, chairs, and cars refer to objects in this world, 'tableness', 'chairness', and 'carness', as well as e. g. justice, truth, and beauty refer to objects in another world.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City State.
Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice.

Republic (Plato)

RepublicThe RepublicPlato's Republic
Early theories of justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work The Republic, and Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics.
The Republic (, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica ) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice, the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man.

Bias

biasesunbiasedbiased
Numerous such biases exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos.

Revenge

vengeanceretaliationretribution
However, it is sometimes argued that retributivism is merely revenge in disguise.
Thus, while protecting of his reputation an avenger feels as if he restores the previous state of dignity and justice.

Natural law

laws of naturenatural lawslaw of nature
In the 1600s, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law.

Veil of ignorance

didn’t know in advance who we’d beinterchangeability of perspectiveVeil of ignorance (philosophy)
The idea of the thought experiment is to render obsolete those personal considerations that are morally irrelevant to the justice or injustice of principles meant to allocate the benefits of social cooperation.

Robert Nozick

NozickNozick, RobertNozickian
Property rights theorists (like Robert Nozick) also take a consequentialist view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Marxism is a needs-based theory, expressed succinctly in Marx's slogan "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need".
Marx never clearly discusses issues of morality and justice, but scholars agree that his work contained implicit discussion of those concepts.

Euthyphro

dialogueeponymous dialogue
A meditation on the Divine command theory by Plato can be found in his dialogue, Euthyphro.
Yet, Socrates later says that the information provided in his question to Euthyphro is insufficient for a clear definition of "piety", because piety belongs to those actions we call just, that is, morally good; however, there are actions, other than pious actions, which we call just (12d); for example, bravery and concern for others.

Cardinal virtues

cardinalcardinal virtuefour cardinal virtues
Justice can be thought of as distinct from benevolence, charity, prudence, mercy, generosity, or compassion, although these dimensions are regularly understood to also be interlinked.
Justice stands outside the class system and divisions of man, and rules the proper relationship among the three of them.

Criminal justice

criminal justice systemcriminalcriminal court
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

Education for Justice

* Education for Justice
Education for Justice is a basic legal knowledge, in which educational activities at all levels seek to promote understanding of crime prevention, peace, justice, human rights, and problems that can undermine the rule of law.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
Jews, Muslims and Christians traditionally believe that justice is a present, real, right, and, specifically, governing concept along with mercy, and that justice is ultimately derived from and held by God.
The fundamental moral qualities in Islam are justice, forgiveness, righteousness, kindness, honesty, and piety.

Criminal law

criminalcriminal casepenal law
In criminal law, a sentence forms the final explicit act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function.
The development of the state dispensing justice in a court clearly emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services.

Economic justice

Justice (economics)economiceconomic injustice
Justice in economics is a subcategory of welfare economics with models frequently representing the ethical-social requirements of a given theory, whether "in the large", as of a just social order, or "in the small", as in the equity of "how institutions distribute specific benefits and burdens".

Just-world hypothesis

just world hypothesisJust-world phenomenonJust-world fallacy
The just-world hypothesis or just-world fallacy is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, to the end of all noble actions being eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished.

Social justice

social injusticeTeaching for social justicesocial
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

Global justice

global ethicsinternational justicejust global economic order
Over the same period, and relatedly, political philosophers' interest in justice focused almost exclusively on domestic issues: how should states treat their subjects, and what do fellow-citizens owe one another?