Justice of the peace

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A Justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.wikipedia
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Hubert Walter

HubertArchbishop HubertHubert, Bishop of Salisbury
In 1195, Richard I ("the Lionheart") of England and his Minister Hubert Walter commissioned certain knights to preserve the peace in unruly areas.
Walter set up a system that was the precursor for the modern justices of the peace, based on selecting four knights in each hundred to administer justice.

Peace (law)

King's peaceQueen's peacepeace
They were responsible to the King in ensuring that the law was upheld and preserving the "King's peace".
In subsequent centuries, those responsible for enforcing the king's peace (besides the king himself) included the King's Bench and various local officials, including the sheriff, coroner, justice of the peace, and constable.

Conservator of the peace

conservators of the peacepeace is preservedSheriff
An act of 1327 had referred to "good and lawful men" to be appointed in every county in the land to "guard the peace"; such individuals were first referred to as conservators of the peace, or wardens of the peace.
The 18th century legal writer Thomas Edlyne Tomlins, in an 1820 legal dictionary, defines "conservator of the peace" as a person who until the creation of the justices of the peace by King Edward III, had "an especial charge to see the king's peace kept" either as incident to other offices or of itself.

Judicial officer

judicialjudicial officersjustice
A Justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Judicial officers are typically categorized as judges, magistrates, puisne judicial officers such as justices of the peace or officers of courts of limited jurisdiction; and notaries public and commissioners of oaths.

Magistrate

magistratespolice magistratemagistracy
The justices' alternative title of "magistrate" dates from the 16th century, although the word had been in use centuries earlier to describe some legal officials of Roman times.
In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as justices of the peace (JPs)—are volunteers who hear prosecutions for and dispose of 'summary offences' and some 'triable-either-way offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional requirements on offenders.

County council

County Councillorcounty councilsCouncil
Until the introduction of elected county councils in the 19th century, JPs, in quarter sessions, also administered the county at a local level.
The new bodies also took over some duties from poor law boards of guardians in relation to diseases of cattle and from the justices of the peace to regulate explosives.

Ada Summers

Ada Jane Summers
Women were not allowed to become JPs in the United Kingdom until 1919, the first woman being Ada Summers, the Mayor of Stalybridge, who was a JP (ex officio) by virtue of her office.
Ada Jane Summers (née Broome; 1861–1944) was the first British woman to sit as a magistrate, and one of the first women in England to become a Justice of the Peace.

Court of quarter sessions

Quarter Sessionsquarter sessionCourts of Quarter Sessions
Until the introduction of elected county councils in the 19th century, JPs, in quarter sessions, also administered the county at a local level. Justices of the peace existed in Ireland prior to 1922, sitting in a bench under the supervision of resident magistrates at petty sessions to try minor offences summarily, and with a county court judge (in his capacity of chairman of quarter sessions) and jury to try more serious offences at quarter sessions.
The quarter sessions generally heard crimes that could not be tried summarily by the justices of the peace without a jury in petty sessions, which were sent up by the process of indictment to be heard in quarter sessions.

Landed gentry

landownergentrylanded
In the centuries from the Tudor period until the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the JPs constituted a major element of the English (later British) governmental system, which had been termed sometimes squirearchy (i.e., dominance of the land-owning gentry).

Stipendiary magistrate

S.M.SMstipendiary
Towns and boroughs with enough burdensome judicial business that could not find volunteers for the unpaid role of justice of the peace had to petition the Crown for authority to hire a paid stipendiary magistrate.
In justice of the peace courts they can exercise the same summary criminal powers as a justice of the peace.

Tati Concessions Land

TatiTati ConcessionTati Concessions
This was the case in the Tati Concessions Land, a gold-mining concession (territory) in the Matabele kingdom, until its annexation by the British Bechuanaland protectorate.
It was locally administered by a Justice of the Peace.

Affidavit

affidavitsaffiantsworn by it
A justice of the peace in Australia is typically someone of good stature in the community who is authorised to witness and sign statutory declarations and affidavits and to certify copies of original documents. A Justice of the Peace in New Zealand is someone of good stature in the community who is authorized to witness and sign statutory declarations and affidavits as well as certify documents.
In Sri Lanka, under the Oaths Ordinance, with the exception of a court-martial, a person may submit an affidavit signed in the presence of a commissioner for oaths or a justice of the peace.

Edward III of England

Edward IIIKing Edward IIIKing Edward III of England
The title justice of the peace derives from 1361, in the reign of Edward III.
Yet the most significant legal reform was probably that concerning the Justices of the Peace.

Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara

One of the famous justices in India was Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara.
Khan Bahadur Kavasji Jamshedji Petigara CIE, OBE, ISO, KPM, JP, IP (24 November 1877 – 28 March 1941) was the first Indian to become the Deputy Commissioner of Police of the Mumbai Police in 1928.

Statutory declaration

Statutory Declarations Act 1835declarationStatutory Declarations
A justice of the peace in Australia is typically someone of good stature in the community who is authorised to witness and sign statutory declarations and affidavits and to certify copies of original documents. A Justice of the Peace in New Zealand is someone of good stature in the community who is authorized to witness and sign statutory declarations and affidavits as well as certify documents.
Prescribed witnesses include legal and medical practitioners, justices of the peace, notaries public, police officers, military officers, registered members of certain professional organisations (i.e. National Tax Accountant's Association and Institution of Engineers Australia), and certain other Commonwealth employees.

Courts of Justice Act 1924

Courts of Justice Act, 1924Courts Act 1924Free State courts
In the Irish Free State the position was effectively abolished by the District Justices (Temporary Provisions) Act 1923 and permanently abolished by the Courts of Justice Act 1924.
The offices of justice of the peace and resident magistrate were permanently abolished.

Peace Commissioner

PC
Their judicial powers were replaced by full-time, salaried, legally qualified district justices (now called district judges) and their quasi-judicial powers by unpaid lay Peace Commissioners.
The title, first proposed as "Parish Commissioner", replaced Justice of the Peace, which according to Dail Debates at the time of the Bill's discussion was considered 'Too British Sounding'.

Resident magistrate

Deputy MagistrateDistrict JudgeGovernment Resident
Justices of the peace existed in Ireland prior to 1922, sitting in a bench under the supervision of resident magistrates at petty sessions to try minor offences summarily, and with a county court judge (in his capacity of chairman of quarter sessions) and jury to try more serious offences at quarter sessions.
In pre-independence Ireland, a Resident Magistrate was a stipendary magistrate appointed to a county (outside of the Dublin Metropolitan Police District) to sit among the justices of the peace at Petty Sessions in that county.

Magistrates' courts committee

Justices of the Peace Act 1949Magistrates' Courts Committeesmagistrature
Until the Courts Act 2003 came into force, magistrates were tied to a particular area (see magistrates' courts committee, commission area, petty sessions area).
The system for managing magistrates' courts arose in piecemeal fashion over the centuries following the creation of justices of the peace (also known as magistrates) in 1327.

Justices' clerk

Clerk to the JusticesClerkcourt clerk
They are advised on points of law and procedure by a legally qualified justices' clerk and their assistants.
The office of justices’ clerk (or clerk to the justices) is historically linked with the development of the office of justice of the peace in England and Wales from the 12th century.

Small claims court

small claimssmall civil claimssmall claims track
In Belgium, the justices of the peace (vredegerecht, justice de paix, friedensgericht) function as the small claims courts in the country's judicial system; they stand at the bottom of the Belgian judicial hierarchy and only handle civil cases.
The movement to establish small-claims courts typically began in the early 1960s, when justice of the peace courts were increasingly seen as obsolete, and officials felt it desirable to have such a court to allow people to represent themselves without legal counsel.

Licensing Act 2003

2003 Licensing Actgovernment legislation24-hour drinking
Although they had a licensing jurisdiction dealing liquor, betting and clubs licensing applications, this was transferred under the Licensing Act 2003 to local authorities.
Responsibility for issuing licences now rests with local authorities, specifically London boroughs, Metropolitan boroughs, unitary authorities, and district councils, who took over this power from the Justices of the Peace.

District Court (Ireland)

District CourtDistrictIrish District Court
Their judicial powers were replaced by full-time, salaried, legally qualified district justices (now called district judges) and their quasi-judicial powers by unpaid lay Peace Commissioners.
Petty sessions were originally held by justices of the peace, who were lay people (and in Ireland, typically members of the Protestant Ascendancy), as preliminary hearings for quarter sessions and the assizes).

Judge

JusticeJJjustices
The official title for judges in Justice Courts is Justice, the same as in New York Supreme Court.
Justices of the peace in justice of the peace courts are addressed and referred to as "Your Honour".

Certified copy

certified copiescertify documents
A Justice of the Peace in New Zealand is someone of good stature in the community who is authorized to witness and sign statutory declarations and affidavits as well as certify documents.
In some States and Territories, police stations and libraries have arrangements to enable documents to be certified or witnessed by a Justice of the Peace.