Justin II

Emperor Justin IIJustinFlavius JustinusFlavius Justinus Augustus
Justin II (Iustinus Iunior; ; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574.wikipedia
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Justinian I

JustinianEmperor JustinianJustinian the Great
He was the husband of Sophia, nephew of Justinian I and the Empress Theodora, and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty.
He was succeeded by Justin II, who was the son of his sister Vigilantia and married to Sophia, the niece of Empress Theodora.

Vigilantia

He was a son of Vigilantia and Dulcidio (or Dulcissimus), respectively the sister and brother-in-law of Justinian.
527–565), and mother to his successor Justin II (r.

Marcellus (brother of Justin II)

Marcellus
His siblings included Marcellus and Praejecta.
Marcellus was a brother of Byzantine emperor Justin II (r.

Justin (consul 540)

JustinFlavius Mar. Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus JustinusJustinus
The clarification was needed because there was another nephew and candidate for the throne, Justin, son of Germanus.
At the time of Justinian's death, he was seen as a probable successor, but was beaten to the throne by his cousin, Justin II ((r.

Cross of Justin II

He presented the Cross of Justin II to Saint Peter's, Rome.
It is a crux gemmata or jewelled cross, silver-gilt and adorned with jewels in gold settings, given to the people of Rome by the Roman Emperor Justin II, who reigned from 565 to 578, and his co-ruler and wife, the Empress Sophia.

Praejecta

His siblings included Marcellus and Praejecta.
She was also a sister of the later Byzantine emperor Justin II (r.

Excubitors

comes excubitorumExcubitoresExkoubitoi
The Excubitors blocked the palace entrances during the night, and early in the morning, John Scholasticus, Patriarch of Constantinople, crowned the new Augustus.
Similarly, Justin II ((r.

Tiberius II Constantine

Tiberius IITiberiusTiberius Constantine
Both the Patriarch and Tiberius, commander of the Excubitors, had been recently appointed, with Justin having played a part in their respective appointments, in his role as Justinian's curopalates.
Tiberius rose to power in 574 when Justin II, prior to a mental breakdown proclaimed Tiberius Caesar and adopted him as his own son.

Kouropalates

curopalateskouropalatēscura palatii
Both the Patriarch and Tiberius, commander of the Excubitors, had been recently appointed, with Justin having played a part in their respective appointments, in his role as Justinian's curopalates.
527–565) made his nephew and heir Justin II curopalates in 552, however, the office took on new significance, and became one of the most exalted dignities, ranking next to Caesar and nobilissimus and, like them, reserved initially for members of the imperial family.

Alboin

AlboinusAlbuinKing Alboin
After the Avars and the neighbouring tribe of the Lombards had combined to destroy the Gepids, from whom Justin had obtained the Danube fortress of Sirmium, Avar pressure caused the Lombards to migrate West, and in 568 they invaded Italy under their king Alboin.
Thus in 565 or 566 Justinian's successor Justin II sent his son-in-law Baduarius as magister militum (field commander) to lead a Byzantine army against Alboin in support of Cunimund, ending in the Lombards' complete defeat.

Lombards

LombardLongobardsLongobard
After the Avars and the neighbouring tribe of the Lombards had combined to destroy the Gepids, from whom Justin had obtained the Danube fortress of Sirmium, Avar pressure caused the Lombards to migrate West, and in 568 they invaded Italy under their king Alboin.
Longinus, the Exarch sent to Italy by Emperor Justin II, could only defend coastal cities that could be supplied by the powerful Byzantine fleet.

John Scholasticus

John III ScholasticusPatriarch John III of ConstantinopleJoannes Scholasticus
The Excubitors blocked the palace entrances during the night, and early in the morning, John Scholasticus, Patriarch of Constantinople, crowned the new Augustus.
lxxv.) mentions his catechism, in which he established the teaching of the consubstantial Trinity, saying that he wrote it in 568, under Justin II, and that it was afterwards attacked by the impious Philoponus.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591

Byzantine–Sassanid WarByzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591ongoing war
In 572 his refusal to pay tribute to the Persians in combination with overtures to the Turks led to a war with the Sassanid Empire.
To make matters worse, in 572 the Byzantine emperor Justin II (r.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
In 572 his refusal to pay tribute to the Persians in combination with overtures to the Turks led to a war with the Sassanid Empire. His reign was marked by war with the Sassanid Empire, and the loss of the greater part of Italy.
In 565, Justinian I died and was succeeded by Justin II (565–578), who resolved to stop subsidies to Arab chieftains to restrain them from raiding Byzantine territory in Syria.

Great Palace of Constantinople

Great Palaceimperial palaceGrand Palace
Justin accepted after the traditional token show of reluctance, and with his wife Sophia, he was escorted to the Great Palace of Constantinople.
The main throne room was the Chrysotriklinos, built by Justin II, and expanded and renovated by Basil I, with the palatine chapel of the Theotokos of the Pharos nearby.

Siege of Dara (573)

Siege of Darabesieged and capturedcapture
After two disastrous campaigns, in which the Persians under Khosrow I overran Syria and captured the strategically important fortress of Dara, Justin reportedly lost his mind.
The news of the fall of Dara, long a major Byzantine stronghold in Upper Mesopotamia, reportedly drove Emperor Justin II insane.

Sophia (empress)

SophiaAelia SophiaEmpress Sophia
He was the husband of Sophia, nephew of Justinian I and the Empress Theodora, and was therefore a member of the Justinian Dynasty.
601) was the Empress consort of Justin II of the Byzantine Empire, and regent during the incapacity of her spouse from 573 until 578.

Arabia (daughter of Justin II)

Arabia
Arabia (Ἀραβία; fl. 565) was the only recorded daughter of Byzantine emperor Justin II (r.

Khosrow I

Khosrau IChosroes IChosroes
After two disastrous campaigns, in which the Persians under Khosrow I overran Syria and captured the strategically important fortress of Dara, Justin reportedly lost his mind. After forming an alliance with the Sassanid ruler Khosrow I to defeat the Hephthalite Empire, Istämi, the Göktürk ruler of the Western Turkic Khaganate, was approached by Sogdian merchants requesting permission to seek an audience with the Sassanid king of kings for the privilege of traveling through Persian territories in order to trade with the Byzantines.
Justinian died in 565 and left Justin II to succeed the throne.

Sogdia

SogdianaSogdianSogdians
Shortly after the smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire from China by Nestorian Christian monks, the 6th-century Byzantine historian Menander Protector writes of how the Sogdians attempted to establish a direct trade of Chinese silk with the Byzantine Empire.
Maniah, a Sogdian diplomat, convinced Istämi to send an embassy directly to Byzantium's capital Constantinople, which arrived in 568 and offered not only silk as a gift to Byzantine ruler Justin II, but also proposed an alliance against Sassanid Persia.

Silk Road

Silk Routesilk tradesilk
Shortly after the smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire from China by Nestorian Christian monks, the 6th-century Byzantine historian Menander Protector writes of how the Sogdians attempted to establish a direct trade of Chinese silk with the Byzantine Empire.
In 568 the Byzantine ruler Justin II was greeted by a Sogdian embassy representing Istämi, ruler of the Turkic Khaganate, who formed an alliance with the Byzantines against Khosrow I of the Sasanian Empire that allowed the Byzantines to bypass the Sasanian merchants and trade directly with the Sogdians for purchasing Chinese silk.

List of Byzantine emperors

Byzantine EmperorEmperorByzantine emperors
Justin II (Iustinus Iunior; ; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574.

John of Ephesus

St. John of Ephesus
John of Ephesus, whose Monophysite sect suffered persecutions under Justin, offered a vivid description of Justin's madness, in which he behaved like a wild animal, was wheeled about on a mobile throne and required organ music to be played day and night.
But his fortunes changed soon after the accession of Justin II.

Istämi

IstemiSinjibuİstemi
After forming an alliance with the Sassanid ruler Khosrow I to defeat the Hephthalite Empire, Istämi, the Göktürk ruler of the Western Turkic Khaganate, was approached by Sogdian merchants requesting permission to seek an audience with the Sassanid king of kings for the privilege of traveling through Persian territories in order to trade with the Byzantines.
Maniah, a Sogdian diplomat, convinced Istämi to send an embassy directly to Byzantium's capital Constantinople, which arrived in 568 and offered not only silk as a gift to Byzantine ruler Justin II, but also proposed an alliance against Sassanid Persia.

Western Turkic Khaganate

Western TujueWestern TurksWestern Turkic Kaganate
After forming an alliance with the Sassanid ruler Khosrow I to defeat the Hephthalite Empire, Istämi, the Göktürk ruler of the Western Turkic Khaganate, was approached by Sogdian merchants requesting permission to seek an audience with the Sassanid king of kings for the privilege of traveling through Persian territories in order to trade with the Byzantines.
A first Turk legation (or embassy) to reach Constantinople visited Justin II in 563.