Köppen climate classification

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
Tropical climate distribution
Dry climate distribution
Temperate climate distribution
Continental climate distribution
The snowy city of Sapporo
Polar climate distribution
North America
Central Asia
East Asia
South America
Western Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
New Zealand

One of the most widely used climate classification systems.

- Köppen climate classification

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Humid subtropical climate

[[File:Koppen World Map Cwa Cfa.png|thumb|right|upright=1.8|Warm temperate with hot summer climate zones of the world according to a modified Köppen climate classification that uses a threshold of 0 °C for the coldest month.

Humid subtropical climate in Li River, China.

Under the Köppen climate classification, Cfa and Cwa climates are either described as humid subtropical climates or warm temperate climates.

Semi-arid climate

[[File:BS climate.png|thumb|upright=1.75|Regions with semi-arid climates

Sahel region of Mali
Regions with hot semi-arid climates
Regions with cold semi-arid climates

A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates (A, C, D) in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential.

Continental climate

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters).

Areas of the world that feature a continental climate, according to Köppen
The snowy city of Sapporo
Aker Brygge in Oslo
Spassky Cathedral in Moscow
Ice skaters on the frozen Rideau Canal, looking south from Laurier Avenue Bridge in Ottawa
alt=Edmonton River Valley|North Saskatchewan River valley in Edmonton
The Forks, with St. Boniface Cathedral in the background in Winnipeg
Toronto skyline taken from Colonel Samuel Smith Park in Etobicoke
Downtown Calgary from Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) campus
Olympic Stadium in Montreal
Quebec City shore
Downtown Pittsburgh from Station Square
Boston's skyline in the background, with fall foliage in the foreground

Most such areas fit Köppen climate classifications of Dfa, Dwa having hot summers (mean temperature of the warmest month above 22 °C; "w" indicating very dry winters characteristic especially of China) or Dfb or Dwb with warm summers (mean temperature below 22 °C).

Subarctic climate

Climate characterised by long, cold (often very cold) winters, and short, warm to cool summers.

Subarctic climate worldwide
View of pines in the Kuysumy mountains in Siberia
Subarctic climate in Alaska, near Yukon

These climates represent Köppen climate classification Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd, Dwd and Dsd.

Wladimir Köppen

Russian-German geographer, meteorologist, climatologist and botanist.

Köppen in 1921 (photo by Friedrich Becks)
Map of Köppen's global climate classification

His most notable contribution to science was the development of the Köppen climate classification system, which, with some modifications, is still commonly used.

Oceanic climate

[[File:Koppen World Map Cfb Cfc Cwb Cwc.png|upright=1.8|thumb|right|World map showing oceanic climate zones

Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka
São Joaquim, Brazil

An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring mild summers (relative to their latitude) and cool but not freezing winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature.

Humid continental climate

Koppen-Geiger Map D present.svg

The snowy city of Sapporo, Japan, has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa).
Mixed forest in Vermont during autumn
Regions with hot-summer humid continental climates
Regions with warm-summer humid continental climates

Using the Köppen climate classification, a climate is classified as humid continental when the temperature of the coldest month is below 0 °C or -3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C.

Wet season

Time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.

The rainfall distribution by month in Cairns, Australia.
A wet season storm at night in Darwin, Australia.
A monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India.
Equatorial savanna in the East Province of Cameroon.

Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 mm or more.

Dry season

Yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.

Dry season in Laos. Long shadow of a dead tree with its branches on the dry fields of Don Det, a sunny day with blue sky and white clouds, late afternoon.

Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a dry season month is defined as a month when average precipitation is below 60 mm.

Polar climate

[[Image:Köppen World Map ET and EF (Polar).svg|thumb|upright=1.8|Areas of polar climate according to the [[Köppen climate classification]].

Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because the angle at which it hits the earth is not as direct as at the equator. Another effect is that sunlight has to go through more atmosphere to reach the ground.
A polar bear with cub
A map of the Arctic. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July and the white area shows the average minimum extent of sea ice in summer as of 1975.

See Köppen climate classification for more information.