Kīlauea

KilaueaKilauea VolcanoKīlauea volcano1969–1971 Mauna Ulu eruption1975 Earthquake in Kilauea VolcanoHawaii -- Kilauea Volcano (2018):Ka-poho-i-kahi-olaKilauea CraterKīlauea, but that changed in May 2018 when Kilauea largely ceased its emissions. The air in Kailua-Kona is clearer than it has been in decades.Kīlauea, HI
Kīlauea is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands that last erupted between 1983 and 2018.wikipedia
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2018 lower Puna eruption

2018 Kilauea eruptiona flank eruption of Kīlaueaa volcanic eruption in June 2018
During the 2018 lower Puna eruption, two dozen lava vents erupted downrift from the summit in Puna.
The 2018 lower Puna eruption was a volcanic event on the island of Hawaiʻi, on Kīlauea volcano's East Rift Zone that began on May 3, 2018.

Mauna Loa

MokuaweoweoLoaHawaiian volcano
Because it lacks topographic prominence and its activities historically coincided with those of Mauna Loa, Kīlauea was once thought to be a satellite of its much larger neighbor.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park covers the summit and the southeastern flank of the volcano, and also incorporates Kīlauea, a separate volcano.

Hawaii (island)

Hawaiiisland of HawaiiBig Island
Historically, Kīlauea is the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the island of Hawaii.
In early May 2018, hundreds of small earthquakes were detected on Kīlauea's East rift zone, leading officials to issue evacuation warnings.

Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chainEmperor SeamountsHawaiian – Emperor seamount chain
It is the second youngest product of the Hawaiian hotspot and the current eruptive center of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Thus Kilauea is the second youngest volcano in the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
The island of Hawaii is composed of five volcanoes, of which three (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai) are still active.

Halemaʻumaʻu

Halema'uma'u Shieldlongest-observed
On May 17, 2018 the volcano explosively erupted at the summit in Halemaʻumaʻu, throwing ash 30,000 feet into the air.
Halemaumau (six syllables: HAH -lay- MAH -oo- MAH -oo) is a pit crater within the much larger summit caldera of Kīlauea in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

Caldera

volcanic calderacalderascaldera collapse
Structurally, Kīlauea has a large, fairly recently formed caldera at its summit and two active rift zones, one extending 125 km east and the other 35 km west, as an active fault of unknown depth moving vertically an average of 2 to 20 mm per year.
Some volcanoes, such as the large shield volcanoes Kīlauea and Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii, form calderas in a different fashion.

2018 Hawaii earthquake

6.9 magnitude earthquake2018-05-04magnitude 6.9 earthquake on May 4, 2018
The eruption was accompanied by a strong earthquake on May 4 of 6.9, and nearly 2,000 residents were evacuated from the rural Leilani Estates subdivision and nearby areas.
The earthquake's epicenter was near the south flank of Kīlauea, which has been the site of seismic and volcanic activity since late April.

Puna, Hawaii

PunaPuna DistrictDistrict of Puna
During the 2018 lower Puna eruption, two dozen lava vents erupted downrift from the summit in Puna.
In June 2014, a lava flow dubbed the June 27th flow started flowing from a vent of a spatter cone called Puʻu ʻŌʻō on the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano in a northwest direction towards the villages of Kaohe Homesteads and Pahoa.

Hawaii

State of HawaiiHawaiʻiHI
The geological record shows, however, that violent explosive activity predating European contact was extremely common; in 1790 one such eruption killed more than 400 people, making it the deadliest volcanic eruption in what is now the United States. Thus Kilauea is the second youngest volcano in the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
Up to 5,405 warriors and their families marching on Kīlauea were killed by the eruption.

Kalapana, Hawaii

KalapanaRoyal GardensKalapana, Hawai'i
Kīlauea erupted nearly continuously from 1983 to 2018, causing considerable property damage, including the destruction of the towns of Kalapana and Kaimū along with the renowned black sand beach, in 1990.
In 1990, lava flows from the Kūpaʻianahā vent of Kīlauea destroyed and partly buried most of the town, as well as Kalapana Gardens and nearby Royal Gardens subdivisions.

Pele (deity)

Pelegoddess Pelefire goddess Pele
Historically, the five volcanoes on the island were considered sacred by the Hawaiian people, and in Hawaiian mythology Kīlauea's Halemaʻumaʻu served as the body and home of Pele, goddess of fire, lightning, wind, and volcanoes.
Kīlauea is a currently active volcano that is located on the island of Hawaii and is still being extensively studied.

Shield volcano

shield volcanoesshieldlava shield
Kīlauea is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands that last erupted between 1983 and 2018. Thus Kilauea is the second youngest volcano in the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
Hawaiian eruptions are often extremely long-lived; Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a cinder cone of Kīlauea, erupted continuously from January 3, 1983 until April 2018.

Keanakakoi eruption

1790One of most devastating explosions in Hawaiian historyone such eruption
The geological record shows, however, that violent explosive activity predating European contact was extremely common; in 1790 one such eruption killed more than 400 people, making it the deadliest volcanic eruption in what is now the United States.
The Keanakakoi eruption was a VEI-4 eruption that occurred from the summit caldera of Kīlauea volcano in or around November 1790.

Hawaiian Islands

Sandwich IslandsHawaiiHawaiian
Kīlauea is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands that last erupted between 1983 and 2018.
Kīlauea had been erupting nearly continuously since 1983 when it stopped August 2018.

Kaʻū Desert

Kaū DesertLeeward desert
Kīlauea's high state of activity has a major impact on its mountainside ecology, where plant growth is often interrupted by fresh tephra and drifting volcanic sulfur dioxide, producing acid rains particularly in a barren area south of its southwestern rift zone known as the Kaʻū Desert.
The desert covers an area of the Kīlauea Volcano along the Southwest rift zone.

List of volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian volcanoesList of volcanoes in Hawaiisecond
Thus Kilauea is the second youngest volcano in the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
The island of Hawaii is comprised by five volcanoes, of which two (Kilauea and Mauna Loa) are still active.

Kapoho, Hawaii

KapohoKapoho BayKapoho Tide Pools
The lava destroyed Hawaii's largest natural freshwater lake, covered substantial portions of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens, and completely inundated the communities of Kapoho, Vacationland Hawaii and most of the Kapoho Beach Lots.
Kapoho, Hawaii, is a now-uninhabited unincorporated area in Puna district, Hawaii County, Hawaii, located near the eastern tip of the island of Hawaii, in the easternmost end of the graben overlying Kīlauea's east rift zone.

Leilani Estates, Hawaii

Leilani Estates
The eruption was accompanied by a strong earthquake on May 4 of 6.9, and nearly 2,000 residents were evacuated from the rural Leilani Estates subdivision and nearby areas. The lava destroyed Hawaii's largest natural freshwater lake, covered substantial portions of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens, and completely inundated the communities of Kapoho, Vacationland Hawaii and most of the Kapoho Beach Lots.
Leilani Estates is located directly on a stretch of the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano, in lava flow hazard zone 1.

Evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes

shield stagerejuvenatedrejuvenated stage
The earliest lavas from the volcano date back to its submarine preshield stage, samples having been recovered by remotely operated underwater vehicles from its submerged slopes; samples of other flows have been recovered as core samples.
Mauna Loa and Kīlauea volcanoes are in this phase of activity.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō

Puu ŌōPu'u O'oPuu Oo
This is not always the case; the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa started during an eruption at Kīlauea, but had no discernible effect on the Kīlauea eruption, and the ongoing inflation of Mauna Loa's summit, indicative of a future eruption, began the same day as new lava flows at Kīlauea's Puu Ōō crater.
Puu Ōō (often written Puu Oo, poo-oo oh-oh) is a volcanic cone in the eastern rift zone of the Kīlauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands.

Hawaii hotspot

Hawaiian hotspotHawaiiHawaiian volcanoes
It is the second youngest product of the Hawaiian hotspot and the current eruptive center of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain.
According to Wilson's theory, the Hawaiian volcanoes should be progressively older and increasingly eroded the further they are from the hotspot, and this is easily observable; the oldest rock in the main Hawaiian islands, that of Kauai, is about 5.5 million years old and deeply eroded, while the rock on Hawaii island is a comparatively young 0.7 million years of age or less, with new lava constantly erupting at Kīlauea, the hotspot's present center.

Koa'e Fault Zone

A series of fault scarps connecting the two rift zones form the Koa'e Fault Zone.
The Koa’e Fault Zone (pronounced coe-wah-hee) is a series of fault scarps connecting the East and Southwest Rift Zones on Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii.

Hawaiian eruption

Hawaiianfire fountainingHawaiian eruptions
Since then, the volcano's activity has likely been as it is now, a continual stream of effusive and explosive eruptions of roughly the same pattern as its activity in the last 200 or 300 years.
This type of eruption occurs most often at hotspot volcanoes such as Kīlauea on Hawaii's big island and in Iceland, though it can occur near subduction zones (e.g. Medicine Lake Volcano in California, United States) and rift zones.

1790 Footprints

1790 battles of East HawaiʻiBattle of HiloEast Hawaiʻi Battles of 1790
One pre-contact eruption in particular, a phreatomagmatic event in 1790, was responsible for the death of a party of warriors, part of the army of Keōua Kuahuula, the last island chief to resist Kamehameha I's rule; their death is evidenced by a set of footprints preserved within the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The 1790 Footprints refer to a set of footprints found near the Kīlauea volcano in present-day Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii.

Lōʻihi Seamount

Loihi SeamountLoihiLōihi
The oldest volcano on the island, Kohala, is more than a million years old, and Kīlauea, the youngest, is believed to be between 300,000 and 600,000 years of age; Lōʻihi Seamount, on the island's flank, is younger and has yet to breach the surface.
If the data model from other volcanoes such as Kīlauea holds true for Lōʻihi, 40% of the volcano's mass formed within the last 100,000 years.