A report on VolcanoLava and Kīlauea

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States
Graph summarizing the eruptions of Kïlauea during the past 200 years. The Pu‘u ‘Ö‘ö- Kupaianaha eruption has continued into the 21st century. Information is sketchy for eruptions before 1823, when the first missionaries arrived on the Island of Hawai‘i. The total duration of eruptive activity in a given year, shown by the length of the vertical bar, may be for a single eruption or a combination of several separate eruptions.
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Rainbow and volcanic ash with sulfur dioxide emissions from Halemaʻumaʻu
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows side by side in Hawaii, September 2007
Painting of the 1891 eruption
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
Toes of a pāhoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States
The Mauna Ulu eruption of 1969 generated a 300 m-high lava fountain
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Columnar jointing in Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
Puʻu ʻŌʻō at dusk, June 1983
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Lava entering the sea to expand the big island of Hawaii, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Lava from a fissure slowly advanced to the northeast on Hoʻokupu Street in Leilani Estates subdivision (May 5, 2018)
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Lava enters the Pacific at the Big Island of Hawaii
Kilauea Volcano Fissure 8 captured on May 3rd, 2019
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Glowing aā flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea in Hawaii, United States
Two views of Halemaʻumaʻu from roughly the same vantage point. At left is the view from 2008, with a distinct gas plume from the Overlook vent, the location of what would become a long-lived lava lake. At right is a view of Halemaʻumaʻu after the eruptive events of 2018, showing the collapsed crater.
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Pāhoehoe lava from Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, United States
View of the eruption from outside the summit caldera, on December 20, 2020
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Block lava at Fantastic Lava Beds near Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park
Ōhia (Metrosideros polymorpha) growing on a barren lava field dating from 1986, formerly the village of Kalapana, Hawaii. The myrtle in this picture, taken in 2009, may have since been covered over—fresh flows in 2010 partially re-covered the area.
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Pillow lava on the ocean floor near Hawaii
The 'amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) is one of the many birds that live on the volcano's flanks.
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, is a stratovolcano.
A view from Kīlauea's eastern rift zone captured during a USGS expedition.
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
A forested lava dome in the midst of the Valle Grande, the largest meadow in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, United States
View from the edge of Kilauea Iki: across the caldera, Halemaʻumaʻu is emitting fume on the left side of the caldera, while Mauna Loa towers above in the background
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
Shiprock, New Mexico, United States: a volcanic neck in the distance, with a radiating dike on its south side
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
450 m-high lava fountain at Kilauea
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Lava can easily destroy entire towns. This picture shows one of over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in Kalapana, Hawaii, United States, in 1990.
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

- Volcano

Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or underwater, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1200 C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

- Lava

Historically, it is the most active of the five volcanoes that together form Hawaii island.

- Kīlauea

Kīlauea's eruptive history has been a long and active one; its name means "spewing" or "much spreading" in the Hawaiian language, referring to its frequent outpouring of lava.

- Kīlauea

Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puu Ōō on a flank of Kīlauea in Hawaii.

- Volcano

Koae and Kapoho, Hawaii were both destroyed by the same eruption of Kīlauea in January, 1960. (abandoned)

- Lava
Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.

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Mauna Loa, a shield volcano in Hawaii

Shield volcano

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Mauna Loa, a shield volcano in Hawaii
An Ancient Greek warrior's shield–its circular shape and gently sloping surface, with a central raised area, is a shape shared by many shield volcanoes
Skjaldbreiður is a shield volcano in Iceland, whose name means broad shield in Icelandic.
Scaled image showing Olympus Mons, top, and the Hawaiian island chain, bottom. Martian volcanoes are far larger than those found on Earth.
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A pāhoehoe lava fountain on Kīlauea erupts
A lava lake in the caldera of Erta Ale, an active shield volcano in Ethiopia
Pāhoehoe flows enter the Pacific Ocean on Hawai{{okina}}i island
Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a parasitic cinder cone on Kīlauea, lava fountaining at dusk in June 1983, near the start of its eruptive cycle
Nāhuku, a famous lava tube on Hawai{{okina}}i island, now a tourist attraction in the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park

A shield volcano is a type of volcano named for its low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground.

It is formed by the eruption of highly fluid (low viscosity) lava, which travels farther and forms thinner flows than the more viscous lava erupted from a stratovolcano.

Hawaiian eruptions are often extremely long-lived; Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a cinder cone of Kīlauea, erupted continuously from January 3, 1983, until April 2018.