A report on Kabul

Kushan Empire
Buddha statue at the museum in Kabul, early 1st millennium
Map showing names of the regions during the 7th century.
Humayun with his father Babur, emperors of the Mughal Empire
Old painting showing the Great Wall of Kabul
Shujah Shah Durrani, the last Durrani King, sitting at his court inside the Bala Hissar
Chihil Sutun Palace (also known as "Hendaki"), one of numerous palaces built by the Emir in the 19th century
Etching of Kabul by an Italian artist, 1885
Dilkusha Palace, built in European style in the 1900s
The river bank in the center of Kabul in the 1960s
People and traffic in a part of Kabul, 1976
Center of Kabul in 1979; the Pul-e Khishti bridge crosses the Kabul River to the old city in the south bank
Taj Beg Palace in 1987, the Soviet Army headquarters during the Soviet–Afghan War
Kabul's Jada-e Maiwand in 1993, showing destruction caused by the civil war.
Modern high-rises built in the 2010s
Night scene in Kabul in 2016 looking northeast, with Koh-e 'Aliabad on the left and Koh-e Asamai on the right
Qargha dam and lake
A view of some of the mountains that surround Kabul
Location of Kabul Municipality within Kabul Province
Young Afghan men and women at a rock music festival inside the Gardens of Babur
Houses built on mountains
Afghan girls in Kabul in 2012
Ghazi Stadium
Arg, the Presidential Palace in Kabul
Marketplace in central Kabul
Inside an antiquity shop in Kabul's famous Chicken Street (Kochi Murgha)
Studio of Radio Kabul in the 1950s
The Kabul Bird Market (Ka Foroshi)
National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan National Archives
Bibi Mahro Park
Italian baroque style of Shah Do Shamshira
Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani (early 19th century rebuilt)
Flightline at Hamid Karzai International Airport (Kabul International Airport), 2012
Traffic in Kabul city center in 2013
A Toyota Corolla (E100) at a security checkpoint in 2010
Kabul Medical University
Kabul Education University of Rabbani
Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan Hospital
16th-century mosque inside the Gardens of Babur
The Taq-e Zafar in Paghman
The Minaret of Knowledge and Ignorance,<ref>{{lang-prs|منار علم و جهل}}</ref> built in the 1920s on a hill in Deh Mazang, commemorating king Amanullah's victory over the Mullah-e Lang in the Khost rebellion
Mausoleum of emir Abdur Rahman Khan, Zarnegar Park
Minaret of the Unknown Corps, memorial of the 1880 Battle of Maiwand
Buddhist stupa of Guldara
Royal Mausoleum at Maranjan hill
The Tang-e Gharu canyon east of Kabul
Traditional hill dwellings
"Old Mikroyan", 1960s built
Ministry of Finance and Khyber Restaurant (1966)
Pamir Cinema building (Agricultural Development Bank)
thumb|Pashtany Bank and the brutalist Kabul Tower
Andarabi Road dwellings on the riverbank
Apartments built in the 2000s with contemporary Afghanese style
Kabul city announced open calls through the Kabul municipality’s HP and its Facebook page, to participate in town meeting and planning process
Kabul mayor Mohammad Daud Sultanzoy speaking with league management during the inauguration ceremony of first ever internet-based solid waste discussion league in 2021
A memorandum of understanding signed by Kabul City mayor Ahmad Zaki Sarfaraz and Nagoya Institute of Technology executive director in 2019

Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.

- Kabul

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Afghanistan

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Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

Landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia.

Tents of Afghan nomads in the northern Badghis province of Afghanistan. Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7,000 years ago.
The extent of the Indus Valley Civilization during its mature phase
A "Bactrian gold" Scythian belt depicting Dionysus, from Tillya Tepe in the ancient region of Bactria
Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, formed by the fragmentation of Alexander the Great's Empire, circa 180 BCE
Saffarid rule at its greatest extent under Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar
Mongol invasions and conquests depopulated large areas of Afghanistan
Map of the Hotak Empire during the Reign of Mirwais Hotak, 1715.
Map of the Hotak Empire at its height in 1728. Disputed between Hussain Hotak (Centered in Kandahar) and Ashraf Hotak (centered in Isfahan)
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani c. 1757.
Afghan tribesmen in 1841, painted by British officer James Rattray
Map of Afghanistan (Emirate) and surrounding nations in 1860, following the conquest of [[Principality of Qandahar|
Kandahar]], and before the conquest of Herat.
Emir Amanullah invaded British India in 1919 and proclaimed Afghanistan's full independence thereafter. He proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan in June 1926.
King Zahir, the last reigning monarch of Afghanistan, who reigned from 1933 until 1973.
Development of the civil war from 1992 to late 2001
U.S. troops and Chinooks in Afghanistan, 2008
A map of Afghanistan showing the 2021 Taliban offensive
Taliban fighters in Kabul on a captured Humvee following the 2021 fall of Kabul.
The mountainous topography of Afghanistan
Köppen climate map of Afghanistan
The snow leopard was the official national animal of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
A 2005 CIA map showing traditional Afghan tribal territories. Pashtun tribes form the world's largest tribal society.
Ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan (2001)
Blue Mosque in Mazar-i-Sharif is the largest mosque in Afghanistan
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan Literacy Rate population plus15 1980–2018
The Daoud Khan Military Hospital in Kabul is one of the largest hospitals in Afghanistan
The Arg (the Presidential palace) in Kabul
U.S. representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) meeting with Taliban leaders, Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai, Suhail Shaheen, unidentified. Doha, Qatar on 21 November 2020.
Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, which are further divided into a number of districts
Workers processing pomegranates (anaar), which Afghanistan is famous for in Asia
Afghan rugs are one of Afghanistan's main exports
Afghan saffron has been recognized as the world's best
Lapis lazuli stones
Afghanistan electricity supply 1980–2019
Band-e Amir National Park
The Minaret of Jam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, currently under threat by erosion and flooding
The Salang Tunnel, once the highest tunnel in the world, provides a key connection between the north and south of the country
An Ariana Afghan Airlines Airbus A310 in 2006
An Afghan family near Kholm, 1939 – most Afghans are tribal
A house occupied by nomadic kochi people in Nangarhar Province
Kabul skyline, displaying both historical and contemporary buildings
A traditional Afghan embroidery pattern
The Afghan rubab
Non (bread) from a local baker, the most widely consumed bread in Afghanistan
Haft Mewa (Seven Fruit Syrup) is popularly consumed during Nowruz in Afghanistan
The ancient national sport of Afghanistan, Buzkashi

Kabul is the country's largest city and serves as its capital.

Flag of the Taliban, also used as the flag of Afghanistan

Taliban

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Deobandi Islamic fundamentalist, militant Islamist, and jihadist political movement in Afghanistan.

Deobandi Islamic fundamentalist, militant Islamist, and jihadist political movement in Afghanistan.

Flag of the Taliban, also used as the flag of Afghanistan
President Ronald Reagan meeting with Afghan Mujahideen leaders in the Oval Office in 1983
The Taliban emerged in the southern Afghan city of Kandahar around September 1994.
Map showing political control in Afghanistan in late 1996, following the capture of Kabul by the Taliban
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and the Northern Alliance in early 2000, when the Taliban was at the height of its power
Taliban border guard in 2001
The Taliban were removed from power in October 2001 by a unified effort of United Islamic Front (Northern Alliance) ground forces, small US Special Operations teams and US air support.
A Northern Alliance fighter wraps a bandolier around his body while assisting US forces at a compound in Helmand Province in Afghanistan, January 2002.
Development of a then-small Taliban insurgency in 2002 until 2006, the year which saw an escalation in Taliban attacks
US representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) meeting with Taliban delegation in Doha, Qatar on 21 November 2020
A map of Afghanistan showing the 2021 Taliban offensive
Taliban Humvee in Kabul, August 2021.
The Darul Uloom Deoband in Uttar Pradesh, India, where the Deobandi movement began
Taller Buddha in 1963 and in 2008 after destruction
November 1999 public execution in Kabul of a mother of five who was found guilty of killing her husband with an axe while he slept.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001
Members of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan protesting against the Taliban, in Peshawar, Pakistan in 1998
Afghans in Germany protesting against Taliban violence, 14 August 2021
Taliban police patrolling the streets of Herat in a pick-up truck
Opium in Taliban safehouse in Helmand
Afghanistan-Pakistan border region pictured in Paktia Province
US soldiers burning a suspected Taliban safehouse in March 2007
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meeting with Taliban delegation in Doha, Qatar, on 12 September 2020
Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir interviewing al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan, between circa 1997 and circa 1998.
Military situation as it was on 3 August 2021
Under control of the Afghan Government, NATO, and Allies
Under control of the Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and Allies

In 1996, the group administered roughly three-quarters of the country, and established the First Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, with the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar from Kabul.

Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by Emperor Ashoka, from Chilzina in Kandahar, 3rd century BC.

Kandahar

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Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by Emperor Ashoka, from Chilzina in Kandahar, 3rd century BC.
A miniature from Padshahnama depicting the surrender of the Shi'a Safavid garrison at what is now Old Kandahar in 1638 to the Mughal army of Shah Jahan
This lithograph is taken from plate 23 of Afghaunistan by Lieutenant James Rattray, 1848. He sketched Kandahar in December 1841 from the rooftop of the former residence of the province's governor, Sirdar Meer Dil Khaun, who was brother to the Emir. Pictured on the left is the tomb of Ahmed Shah Durrani and on the right the Bala Hissar (fort) and citadel.
Painting by Abdul Ghafoor Breshna depicting the 1747 coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who is regarded as the founding father of Afghanistan (Father of the Nation).
British and allied forces at Kandahar after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was finally removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nader Khan, the father of King Zahir Shah.
Street in the city, 1973
The Mausoleum of Mirwais Hotak
U.S. Army troops in 2009 passing by the starting point of the Army Ten-Miler run at their base next to Kandahar International Airport.
Afghan National Security Forces and members of ISAF providing security in 2012.
U.S. Ambassador Ryan Crocker and Toryalai Wesa, the Governor of Kandahar Province.
View of the airport in 2005
A Kam Air passenger plane at Kandahar International Airport in 2012
Children from the Zarghona Ana High School watch members of Afghan National Security Force and Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team prepare for the Kandahar Nursing and Midwifery Institute grand opening ceremony in 2012.
An 1881 photo showing the ruined Old Kandahar citadel of Shah Hussain Hotak that was destroyed by the Afsharid forces of Nader Shah in 1738. This destroyed fortress is still standing today.
Ancient city of Old Kandahar (red) and Chilzina mountainous outcrop (blue) on the western side of Kandahar.
The original model plan of the Aino Mina neighbourhood, which began in 2003 by Mahmud Karzai and associates.
The mausoleum of Baba Wali Kandhari next to the Arghandab Valley, in the northern outskirts of the city.
The mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani in the centre of the city, which also serves as the Congregational Mosque and contains a sacred cloak that used to be worn by Islam's Prophet Muhammad.
Al-Jadeed indoor shopping centre in the Shahre Naw section of the city.
Local children watching a football match at the playground of Ahmad Shah Baba High School.
Arghandab Valley
Mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Governor's Mansion
A gathering of tribal and religious leaders following a shura held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai in June 2010 to start a dialogue for peace with the Taliban.

Kandahar ( Kandahār,, Qandahār) is a city in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1010 m. It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, with a population of about 614,118.

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan

Pashtuns

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Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia.

Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia.

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan
A Pashtun Tribesmen in Kurram, c. 1894 CE
A map of Pashtun tribes
Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchian. They migrate from region to region depending on the season (transhumance).
The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE
Head of a Saka warrior
Pactyans, present day Pashtunistan. The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C., Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26)
Heads of two males, discovered in Hadda (Pashto: هډه) 10km south of Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Dated 3-4th century CE.
Bactrian document in the Greek script from the 4th century mentioning the word Afghan (αβγανανο): "To Ormuzd Bunukan from Bredag Watanan, the chief of the Afghans"
Afghan Amir Sher Ali Khan (in the center with his son) and his delegation in Ambala, near Lahore, in 1869
Leader of the non-violent Khudai Khidmatgar, also referred to as "the Red shirts" movement, Bacha Khan, standing with Mohandas Gandhi
Malala Yousafzai, a Pashtana, recipient of 2014 Nobel Peace Prize
American diplomat Zalmay Khalilzad with Taliban officials Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai and Suhail Shaheen
President Hamid Karzai and Abdul Rahim Wardak
From left to right: Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai; Anwar ul-Haq Ahady; and Abdullah Abdullah
Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer-turned-politician and former Prime Minister, belongs to the Niazi tribe.
Pashtun-inhabited areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan (green) in 1980
Ethnolinguistic groups in Pakistan and Afghanistan in 1982
Pashtun female festive dress in Faryab, Afghanistan
Khattak dance involves running and whirling. It is mainly performed in and around the Peshawar area of Pakistan.
Mahmud Tarzi, son of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, became the pioneer of Afghan journalism for publishing the first newspaper Seraj al Akhbar.
Shahid Afridi, former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team
Buzkashi in Afghanistan
The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda, 5th century CE
The Friday Mosque in Kandahar. Adjacent to it is the Shrine of the Cloak(also known as Kirka Sharif), and the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the 18th century Pashtun conqueror who became the founding father of Afghanistan.
Men doing Islamic salat (praying) outside in the open in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Two Pashtane (Pashtun women) from Kuch i tribe pictured in 1967 on the Helmand river (د هلمند سيند)
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan
Zarine Khan, Indian model and actress in Bollywood films
Malala Yousafzai, Pakistani activist for female education and the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Madhubala, Indian Bollywood actress and producer

The Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar, Quetta and Kabul have grown rapidly due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.

Afghans fleeing Kabul Airport aboard a US Boeing C-17 Globemaster III during the fall of Kabul

Fall of Kabul (2021)

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Afghans fleeing Kabul Airport aboard a US Boeing C-17 Globemaster III during the fall of Kabul
Taliban militants during the 2021 offensive
Taliban control of Afghanistan prior to the fall of Kabul
Evacuees load on to buses to be processed during an evacuation at Hamid Karzai International Airport, Kabul, Afghanistan
Fleeing civilians aboard a US Air Force transport plane at Kabul Airport on 19 August 2021
US Marines with SP-MAGTF-CR-CC at an evacuation checkpoint at Kabul Airport on 21 August
Protest in Rotterdam against the Taliban's take over, 21 August 2021
US President Joe Biden discussing the fall of Kabul with the National Security Council on 18 August 2021
American, British, and Turkish soldiers assist a child evacuating from Kabul Airport, 20 August 2021
Taliban fighters patrolling Kabul in a Humvee, 17 August 2021
Civilians preparing to be airlifted from Kabul Airport, 18 August 2021
The Panjshir Valley
The Chadori, blue Afghan burqas.

Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul was captured by the Taliban on 15 August 2021, the culmination of a major insurgent offensive that began in May 2021.

Pakistan

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Country in South Asia.

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Upon the defeat of the Turk and Hindu Shahi dynasties which governed the Kabul Valley, Gandhara (present-day Khyber Pakhtunkwa), and western Punjab in the 7th to 11th centuries CE, several successive Muslim empires ruled over the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE).

Durrani Empire

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Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia.

Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia.

The Afghan Empire at its height under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
The Afghan Empire at its peak under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
City of Kandahar, its principal bazaar and citadel, as seen from the Nakkara Khauna
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition decisively defeat the Maratha Confederacy, during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the Mughal Empire to Shah Alam II.
The Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar was one of the royal residences of the Durrani kings.
The main street in the bazaar at Kabul, 1842 James Atkinson watercolour painting.

Following Afshar's death in June 1747, Ahmad secured Afghanistan by taking Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, and Peshawar.

Timur Shah Durrani

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The second ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, from November 1772 until his death in 1793.

The second ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, from November 1772 until his death in 1793.

Portrait of Timur Shah Durrani
Coin of Timur Shah Durrani as Nizam of the Punjab, minted in Lahore, dated 1757/8
Representation of a Safavid Qizilbash
Bala Hissar fort, Peshawar, in 1910
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, brother-in-law to Timur Shah.
Tomb of Timur Shah Durrani in Kabul

His prominent reign would see the Durrani Empire being held through tough times, Timur Shah also notably changed the capital of the Durrani Empire from Kandahar to Kabul, which is what would affect the state of modern Afghanistan today, with Kabul as its Capital city.

Sir Mortimer Durand, diplomat of the colonial Indian Civil Service

Soviet–Afghan War

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Conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen, as well as smaller Marxist–Leninist–Maoist groups, fought a nine-year guerrilla war against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) and the Soviet Army throughout the 1980s, mostly in the Afghan countryside.

Conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the Mujahideen, as well as smaller Marxist–Leninist–Maoist groups, fought a nine-year guerrilla war against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) and the Soviet Army throughout the 1980s, mostly in the Afghan countryside.

Sir Mortimer Durand, diplomat of the colonial Indian Civil Service
The existing Afghanistan–Pakistan border and maximum extent of claimed territory
Postage stamp from 1979 depicting the Arg, with the text reading "The Great Saur Revolution is the fruit of the class struggle"
Afghanistan Scout Association in the 1950s
Soviet infantry at the time of deployment
Soviet forces after capturing some Mujahideen
Soviet soldiers conducting training
The headquarters of the Soviet 40th Army in Tajbeg Palace, Kabul, 1987. Before the Soviet intervention, the building was presidential palace, where Hafizullah Amin was killed.
Soviet ground forces in action, supported by Mi-24 helicopters and T-62 tanks, while conducting an offensive operation against the Afghan mujahideen, 1984.
Map of the Soviet intervention, December 1979
Soviet paratroopers aboard a BMD-1 in Kabul
A Mujahideen fighter in Kunar uses a communications receiver.
Mujahideen with two captured artillery field guns in Jaji, 1984
A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan, 1988
The areas where the different Mujahideen forces operated in 1985
Darul Aman Palace in 1982, general headquarters of the Afghan Army
Three mujahideen in Asmar, 1985
Mujahideen praying in Shultan Valley, 1987
Awards ceremony for the 9th Company
Soviet soldier in Afghanistan, 1988
A column of Soviet BTR armored personnel carriers departing from Afghanistan.
Soviet T-62M main battle tank withdraws from Afghanistan
CGen of 40th Army, Boris Gromov, announcing the withdrawal of Soviet contingent forces.
Painting of the 'first Stinger Missile kill in 1986'.
An Afghan village left in ruins after being destroyed by Soviet forces
A German database showing the channelling of the money and weapons, provided by ISI officer Mohammad Yousaf in his book: Afghanistan – The Bear Trap: The Defeat of a Superpower
U.S. President Reagan meeting with Afghan mujahideen at the White House, to highlight Soviet atrocities in Afghanistan
Charlie Wilson (D-TX), 2nd from the left, dressing in Afghan clothing (armed with AKS-74U) with the local Afghan mujahideen.
An Afghan mujahid carries a Lee–Enfield No. 4 in August 1985
A demonstration against the Soviet presence in Afghanistan, in The Hague, Netherlands, 1985
Soviet soldiers return from Afghanistan, October 1986
Spetsnaz troops interrogate a captured mujahideen with an RPG, rounds and AK47 in the background, 1986
A member of the International Committee of the Red Cross helping a wounded Afghan child walk in 1986
A PFM-1 mine, often mistaken for a toy by children. The mine's shape was dictated by aerodynamics.
Afghan guerrillas that were chosen to receive medical treatment in the United States, Norton Air Force Base, California, 1986
Two Soviet T-55 tanks left by the Soviet army during their withdrawal lie rusting in a field near Bagram Airfield, in 2002
U.S. troops in 2011 surveying the Salang Pass during the War in Afghanistan, the route used by Soviet forces during the invasion 32 years before
Afghans commemorating Mujahideen Victory Day in Kabul (2007)
20th Anniversary of Withdrawal of Soviet Military Forces from Afghanistan, stamp of Belarus, 2009
A meeting of Russian war veterans from Afghanistan, 1990
Memorial to soldiers located in Kolomyia, Ukraine
Afghans killed by Soviet forces in the 1980s, after a raid on a caravan

In 1974, Bhutto authorized another secret operation in Kabul where the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and the Air Intelligence of Pakistan (AI) extradited Burhanuddin Rabbani, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Ahmad Shah Massoud to Peshawar, amid fear that Rabbani, Hekmatyar and Massoud might be assassinated by Daoud.

Territorial control of Afghanistan at the end of the offensive (15 August 2021)
(See a more detailed map of the current military situation in Afghanistan.)

2021 Taliban offensive

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Territorial control of Afghanistan at the end of the offensive (15 August 2021)
(See a more detailed map of the current military situation in Afghanistan.)
US Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin meeting with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani in June 2021
Afghan pro-government forces assemble in Jowzjan Province
Armed locals protest in support of the Afghan government in Jowzjan Province on 13 July 2021
Situation on 25 July
Afghan National Army soldiers in combat with the Taliban
Taliban fighters resting at a village, August 2021
US President Joe Biden in a video conference with Vice President Harris and the US National Security team, discussing the situation in Afghanistan on 14 August 2021
British soldiers deploying to Kabul to assist in the NATO withdrawal, 13 August 2021
Taliban fighters in Kabul, 17 August 2021
US soldiers with Afghans evacuating Hamid Karzai International Airport on 21 August, after the Taliban captured Kabul.
On 8 July, US President Joe Biden stated: "The likelihood there's going to be the Taliban overrunning everything and owning the whole country is highly unlikely."
Afghans fleeing aboard a US Boeing C-17 Globemaster III during the Fall of Kabul, 15 August 2021. The Taliban offensive resulted in an exodus of Afghans.
Taliban militants and civilians in front of Hamid Karzai International Airport, 17 August 2021
A US Marine escorting Afghan evacuees during the Kabul airlift, 19 August 2021
Repatriation operations from Afghanistan in August 2021
US airmen evacuating their final CH-47 Chinook onto a C-17 Globemaster III at Kabul Airport in August 2021.
Protest in Rotterdam against the Taliban's take over, 21 August 2021

The 2021 Taliban offensive, also known as the summer offensive, was a military offensive by the Taliban insurgent group and other allied militants against the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan that led to the fall of the Republic based in Kabul and marked the end of the nearly 20-year-old War in Afghanistan, that had begun following the United States invasion of the country.