Kabul Shahi

ShahiHindu ShahiShahi dynastyKabulshahHindu Shahi of KabulHindu Shahi periodHindu ShahisHindu Shahis of KabulHindushahKabul
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 11th century.wikipedia
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Afghanistan

🇦🇫AfghanAfghans
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 11th century.
Many empires and kingdoms have also risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khaljis, Kartids, Timurids, Mughals, and finally the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.

Gandhara

GandhāraGandhariGandharis
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 11th century.
The Persian term Shahi is used by historian Al-Biruni to refer to the ruling dynasty that took over from the Kabul Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries.

Gardez

Gardez CityGardēz
When Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez.
Archaeological discoveries, including Greek, Sassanid, Hephthalite, and Turki-Shāhī coins give a small insight into the rich history of Gardez.

Kabul

Neighborhood of KabulKabul, AfghanistanKabul Valley
The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 11th century. The historian V. A. Smith speculates – based on Alberuni – that the earlier Shahis were a cadet branch of the Kushanas who ruled both over Kabul and Gandhara until the rise of the Saffarids.
It has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Greco Bactrians, Indo Greeks, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khwarazmians, Qarlughids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, and Hotaks, until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire (also known as the "Afghan Empire") in 1747.

Ghaznavids

Ghaznavid EmpireGhaznavid dynastyGhaznavid
At the end period the last Shahi emperors Jayapala, Anandapala and Tirlochanpala fought the Muslim Turk Ghaznavids of Ghazna and were gradually defeated.
Sabuktigin, son-in-law of Alp Tigin and founder of the Ghaznavid Empire, began expanding it by capturing Samanid and Kabul Shahi territories, including most of what is now Afghanistan and part of Pakistan.

Peshawar

Peshawar cityPeshawar, PakistanPeshwar
the descendants of Barahatakin include one was Kanik (possibly the Kushan ruler Kanishka), who is said to have built a vihara called Kanika Caitya in Purushapura (Peshawar).
Until the mid 7th century, the residents of ancient Peshawar had a ruling elite of Central Asian Scythian descent, who were then displaced by the Hindu Shahis of Kabul.

Hindu and Buddhist heritage of Afghanistan

Buddhist heritage
Pre Islamic Hindu and Buddhist heritage of Afghanistan is well established in the Shahi coinage from Kabul of this period.
South of the Hindu Kush was ruled by the Zunbil and Kabul Shahi rulers.

Kabulistan

Kabul regionKabul ValleyKabul
When Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the Kabul region was ruled by a Kshatriya king, who is identified as the Shahi Khingal, and whose name has been found in an inscription found in Gardez.
The earliest rulers of Kabulistan were the Kabul Shahis, who ruled the region between 565 and 879 AD. Kabul Shahis had built a defensive wall around the city of Kabul to protect it against invaders, but despite that, they were conquered by the Saffarids of Zaranj.

Turkic peoples

TurkicTurksTurkish
the kings residing in Kabul, while they practised Hinduism, also belonged to a Turkic culture;
Kabul Shahi

Lahore

Lahore, PakistanLahore CityLahore, Punjab
307–10) in about AD 990, it is written, ''"the arrogant but ambitious Raja of Lahore Bharat, having put his father in confinement, marched on the country of Jayapála with the intention of conquering the districts of Nandana, Jailum (Jehlum) and Tákeshar"'' (in an attempt to take advantage of Jayapala's concentrated effort with defence against the armies of Ghazni).
Lahore appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under Anandapala of the Kabul Shahi empire, who had moved the capital there from Waihind.

Saffarid dynasty

SaffaridsSaffaridEmir
The historian V. A. Smith speculates – based on Alberuni – that the earlier Shahis were a cadet branch of the Kushanas who ruled both over Kabul and Gandhara until the rise of the Saffarids. They briefly recaptured the Kabul Valley from the Samanid successors of the Saffarids, until a general named Alptigin drove out the Samanid wali of Zabulistan and established the Ghaznavid dynasty at Ghazna.
From his capital Zaranj he moved east into al-Rukhkhadj and Zamindawar followed by Zunbil and Kabul by 865.

Bactria

BahlikaTokharistanBactrian
The name (Katorman or Lagaturman) of the last king of the so-called first Shahi line of Kabul/Kapisa simply reveals a trace of Tukhara cultural influence in the Kamboja (Kapisa) region, as hinted in the above discussion.
In 663, the Umayyad Caliphate attacked the Buddhist Shahi dynasty ruling in Tokharistan.

Sabuktigin

Sultan SebukteginSebuktiginSabuktagin
Under his general and successor Sabuktigin the Ghaznavids had begun to raid the provinces of Lamghan.
The Kabul Shahis allied with him and the king, most likely Jayapala, sent his son to assist Lawik in the invasion.

Nandana

Nandana Fort
307–10) in about AD 990, it is written, ''"the arrogant but ambitious Raja of Lahore Bharat, having put his father in confinement, marched on the country of Jayapála with the intention of conquering the districts of Nandana, Jailum (Jehlum) and Tákeshar"'' (in an attempt to take advantage of Jayapala's concentrated effort with defence against the armies of Ghazni).
It was ruled by the Hindu Shahi kings until, in the early 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni expelled them from Nandana.

Mahmud of Ghazni

Sultan Mahmud GhaznaviMahmudSultan Mahmud
His successor Anandapala arrived at a tributary arrangement with Sebuktigin's successor, Mahmud of Ghazni, before he was defeated and exiled to Kashmir in the early 11th century.
On 28November 1001, his army fought and defeated the army of Raja Jayapala of the Kabul Shahis at the battle of Peshawar.

Zabulistan

ZabolestānZabulZābul
They briefly recaptured the Kabul Valley from the Samanid successors of the Saffarids, until a general named Alptigin drove out the Samanid wali of Zabulistan and established the Ghaznavid dynasty at Ghazna.
The region fell to the Turk Shahis in the 7th century, then being controlled by a collection loose suzerains of the Hindu Shahis to 11th century, when it was finally conquered and Islamized by the Ghaznavids after 961 CE.

Punjab

PanjabPunjabiSouth Punjab
The Hindu Shahis became engaged with the Yamini Turks of Ghazni over supremacy of the eastern regions of Afghanistan initially before it extended towards the Punjab region.
713–1200: Rajput states, Kabul Shahi & small Muslim kingdoms

Epic of King Gesar

GesarGesar epicGeser
Fromo Kesar/Phrom Gesar (739-?)
Numismatic evidence and some accounts speak of a Bactrian ruler Phrom-kesar, specifically the Kabul Shahi of Gandhara, which was ruled by a Turkish From Kesar ("Caesar of Rome"), who was father-in-law of the king of the Kingdom of Khotan around the middle of the 8th century CE. In early Bon sources, From Kesar is always a place name, and never refers, as it does later, to a ruler.

Didda

Didda, a queen of Kashmir was a granddaughter of the Brahmin Shahi Bhima, who was married to Kshemagupta (r. 951–959).
Didda was a daughter of Simharāja, the king of Lohara, and a granddaughter on her maternal side of Bhima Shahi, one of the Hindu Shahi of Kabul.

Alp-Tegin

AlptiginAlp Tegin
They briefly recaptured the Kabul Valley from the Samanid successors of the Saffarids, until a general named Alptigin drove out the Samanid wali of Zabulistan and established the Ghaznavid dynasty at Ghazna.
He seized Ghazna from Abu Bakr Lawik, a kinsman of the Kabulshah, and secured his position by receiving an investiture from the Samanids as the governor of Ghazna.

Ancient history of Afghanistan

pre-Islamic periodareas that are now AfghanistanConquest of Afghanistan by Alexander the Great
Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan (Before 650 AD)
The Shahi dynasties ruled portions of the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan and Kashmir) from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century.

Battle of Chach

During the battle of Chach between Mahmud and Anandapala, it is stated that "a body of 30,000 Gakhars fought alongside as soldiers for the Shahi Emperor and incurred huge losses for the Ghaznavids".

Battle of Peshawar (1001)

Battle of Peshawarattacked GhazniPeshawar
Emperor Jayapala was challenged by the armies of Sultan Sabuktigin in Battle of Peshawar (1001) and later by his son Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.

Trilochanapala

Trilochanapala (ruled c. 1010 - 1021-22; assassinated by mutinous troops)
Trilochanpala was the son of Anandapala and was one of the last kings of the Kabul Shahis.