Kaige revision

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script

Group of revisions to the Septuagint made in order to more closely align its translation with the proto-Masoretic Hebrew.

- Kaige revision
Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script

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The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts

Tetragrammaton

Four-letter Hebrew theonym , the name of God in Judaism and Christianity.

Four-letter Hebrew theonym , the name of God in Judaism and Christianity.

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120
The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.
YHWH in one of the Lachish letters
Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew script on Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, rendering the name as "IEVE", which in contemporary letters is "IEUE".
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles, France.
A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.
Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle, detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa
The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in Missouri

Speaking of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, which is a kaige recension of the Septuagint, "a revision of the Old Greek text to bring it closer to the Hebrew text of the Bible as it existed in ca. 2nd-1st century BCE" (and thus not necessarily the original text), Kristin De Troyer remarks: "The problem with a recension is that one does not know what is the original form and what the recension. Hence, is the paleo-Hebrew Tetragrammaton secondary – a part of the recension – or proof of the Old Greek text? This debate has not yet been solved."

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script

Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever

Greek manuscript of a revision of the Septuagint dated to the 1st century CE.

Greek manuscript of a revision of the Septuagint dated to the 1st century CE.

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script
Col. B1–2 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr).

According to Tuukka Kauhanen, a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Faculty of Theology at University of Helsinki, this manuscript is an early Hebraizing revision (i.e. in B-text of books such as Joshua, Judges, and Samuel-Kings), Eugene C. Ulrich wrote "attests the recension commonly referred to as Proto-Theodotion or καιγε" recension, which is reaffirmed by Pavlos Vasileiadis, a Doctor of Theology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Nomina sacra ( for Ίησοῦ, Jesus, and for Θεοῦ, God) in John 1:35–37 in the 4th-century Codex Vaticanus

Names and titles of God in the New Testament

In contrast to the variety of absolute or personal names of God in the Old Testament, the New Testament uses only two, according to the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia.

In contrast to the variety of absolute or personal names of God in the Old Testament, the New Testament uses only two, according to the International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia.

Nomina sacra ( for Ίησοῦ, Jesus, and for Θεοῦ, God) in John 1:35–37 in the 4th-century Codex Vaticanus

Speaking of the Qumran manuscript, the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, which is a kaige recension of the Septuagint, "a revision of the Old Greek text to bring it closer to the Hebrew text of the Bible as it existed in ca. 2nd-1st century BCE" (not a faithful copy of the original), Kristin De Troyer remarks: "The problem with a recension is that one does not know what is the original form and what the recension. Hence, is the paleo-Hebrew Tetragrammaton secondary – a part of the recension – or proof of the Old Greek text? This debate has not yet been solved."