Kaiser Wilhelm Society

Kaiser Wilhelm InstituteKaiser-Wilhelm GesellschaftKaiser Wilhelm Institute for ChemistryKaiser Wilhelm Institute for PhysicsKaiser Wilhelm Institute for BiologyKaiser-Wilhelm-GesellschaftKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain ResearchKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and ElektrochemistryKaiser Wilhelm GesellschaftKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research
The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.wikipedia
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Otto Hahn

HahnHahn, OttoOtto-Hahn
The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.
He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society (MPG) from 1948 to 1960.

Peter Debye

Peter J. W. DebyeDebyePeter J.W. Debye
The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.
This was followed by moves to Utrecht in 1912, to Göttingen in 1913, to ETH Zurich in 1920, to University of Leipzig in 1927, and in 1934 to Berlin, where, succeeding Einstein, he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (now named the Max-Planck-Institut) whose facilities were built only during Debye's era.

Albert Einstein

EinsteinEinsteinianA. Einstein
The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.
Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which was soon to be established.

Chemical weapons in World War I

poison gasgassedgas
During the World War I, the group, and in particular Fritz Haber, was responsible for introducing the use of poison gas as a weapon.
In cooperation with Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin, they began developing methods of discharging chlorine gas against enemy trenches.

Max Planck

PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPlanck, M.
Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany.
In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPS).

Walther Bothe

Herbert BeckerWalter Bothe Walther Bothe
The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.
Ludolf von Krehl, Director of the KWImF, and Max Planck, President of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG, Kaiser Wilhelm Society, today the Max Planck Society), had offered the directorship to Bothe to ward off the possibility of his emigration.

Rockefeller Foundation

Rockefeller FellowshipRockefellerThe Rockefeller Foundation
External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation granted students worldwide one-year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany.

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of AnthropologyKWI of Anthropology, Human Heredity and EugenicsKWI-A
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany.

Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft

Emergency Association of German ScienceGerman Research CouncilDeutsche Forschungs-Gemeinschaft
Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Association of German Science).
Member institutions of the NG included all German universities, all polytechnics (Technische Hochschulen), the five German Academies of Science, and the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft.

Adolf von Harnack

Adolf HarnackHarnackAdolph von Harnack
He played an important role in the foundation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and became its first president.

Fritz Haber

HaberF. HaberHaber, Fritz
The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance. During the World War I, the group, and in particular Fritz Haber, was responsible for introducing the use of poison gas as a weapon.
From 1919 to 1925, in response to a request made by German ambassador to Japan Wilhelm Solf for Japanese support for German scholars in times of financial hardship, a Japanese businessman named Hoshi Hajime, the president of Hoshi Pharmaceutical Company donated two million Reichsmark to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society as the ‘Japan Fund’ (Hoshi-Ausschuss).

University of Göttingen

GöttingenGöttingen UniversityGeorg-August-Universität Göttingen
The physicist Howard Percy Robertson was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg August University of Göttingen and the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.
In 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
During the World War I, the group, and in particular Fritz Haber, was responsible for introducing the use of poison gas as a weapon.
The German army was the first to successfully deploy chemical weapons during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April – 25 May 1915), after German scientists working under the direction of Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute developed a method to weaponize chlorine.

Max Planck Institute of Biophysics

Max Planck Institute for BiophysicsMax-Planck Institute of Biophysics
It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics in 1937, and moved into a new building in 2003.

Max Planck Institute for Brain Research

Max-Planck-Institut für HirnforschungInstitute for Brain ResearchKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research
It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin 1914, moved to Frankfurt-Niederrad in 1962 and more recently in a new building in Frankfurt-Riedberg.

Walther Gerlach

Walter Gerlach
The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone.
From 1937 until 1945, Gerlach was a member of the supervisory board of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG).

Oskar Vogt

C. and O. VogtOscar VogtVogt
This institute served as the basis for the 1914 formation of the Kaiser Institut für Hirnforschung (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research), of which Oskar was a director.

Max Planck Institute for Coal Research

Max Planck Institute für KohlenforschungKaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für KohlenforschungMax-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung
Founded in 1912 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung) in Mülheim an der Ruhr to study the chemistry and uses of coal, it became an independent Max Planck Institute in 1949.

Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

Kaiser Wilhelm InstitutKaiser Wilhelm Institute for ChemistryMax Planck Institut für Chemie – Otto Hahn Institut
The Institute was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin Dahlem in 1911.

Max von Laue

LaueMax LaueMax Theodor Felix von Laue
The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone.
The Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften (Today: Max-Planck Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was founded in 1911.

Albert Vögler

Albert Voegler
As the American forces closed in on the relocated KWI, the organization's president, Albert Vögler, an industrialist and early Nazi Party backer, committed suicide, knowing he would be held accountable for the group's crimes and complicity in war crimes.
He was president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (later Max Planck Society) from 1941 until his death in 1945.

Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law

Max Planck Institute for International LawHermann MoslerKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Foreign Public Law and International Law
The institute was founded in 1924 and was originally named the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Foreign and International Public Law and located in Berlin.

Otto Heinrich Warburg

Otto WarburgOtto H. WarburgWarburg
In 1918, Warburg was appointed professor at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin-Dahlem (part of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft).

Ludwig Prandtl

PrandtlPrandtl's 1918 theoryPrandtl, Ludwig
In 1925 the university spun off his research arm to create the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research (now the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization).

Max Planck Institute for Biology

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for BiologyKaiser Wilhelm Institute of BiologyMax-Planck-Institut für Biologie
It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943.