Kalabhra dynasty

KalabhrasKalabhraKalabhra EmpireKalabhra interregnumKalabhras KingdomKalbhras
The Kalabhra dynasty, also called Kalabra, Kalappirar or Kalvar were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between 3rd-century and 6th-century CE, after ancient dynasties of early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera.wikipedia
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Chera dynasty

CheraCherasChera Kingdom
The Kalabhra dynasty, also called Kalabra, Kalappirar or Kalvar were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between 3rd-century and 6th-century CE, after ancient dynasties of early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera.
Tradition tells that the Kalabhra (Kalvar ) rulers kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya rulers in their confinement.

Kanchipuram

KanchiKancheepuramConjeevaram
T. A. Gopinath Rao equates them with the Mutharaiyars and an inscription in the Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchi mentions a Mutharaiyar named as Kalavara-Kalvan.
Kalbhras, the rulers of Kanchipuram before the Pallavas, followed Jainism which gained popularity from royal patronage.

Madurai

MaduraMadurai, IndiaMadhurai
After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhra dynasty, which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE.

Simhavishnu

King SimhavishnuSimha VishnuSimha Vishnu Pallava
However, a multitude of evidence affirms that Simhavishnu – the Pallava king had united the Tamil regions, removed Kalabhras and others, consolidated his kingdom from south of the Krishna river and up to the Kaveri river by c. 575 CE.
Simhavishnu, who was known for his gallant martial courage and judicial wisdom from a young age, overthrew the Kalabhras and conquered the region up to Kaveri, where he came into conflict with the Pandyas and Ceylon.

Early Cholas

Early CholaCholaCholas
The Kalabhra dynasty, also called Kalabra, Kalappirar or Kalvar were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between 3rd-century and 6th-century CE, after ancient dynasties of early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera.

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Early Pandyasearly PandyanPandyan Kingdom
The Kalabhra dynasty, also called Kalabra, Kalappirar or Kalvar were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between 3rd-century and 6th-century CE, after ancient dynasties of early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera.

Karnataka

Karnataka StateKarnataka, IndiaKarnatka
Their proposed roots vary from southeast region of modern Karnataka, Kalappalars of Vellala community, to Kalavar chieftains.

Penna River

PennarPenner RiverPenna
In contrast, Upinder Singh states that Shivaskandavarman rise in 4th-century, as evidenced by inscriptions, show Kalabhras were not in power at that time near rivers Penner and Vellar (close to Kaveri).

Vellar River

VellarVellaruRiver Vellar
In contrast, Upinder Singh states that Shivaskandavarman rise in 4th-century, as evidenced by inscriptions, show Kalabhras were not in power at that time near rivers Penner and Vellar (close to Kaveri).

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
This has led to the inference that the Kalabhra rulers may have ended grants to Hindu temples and persecuted the Brahmins, and supported Buddhism and Jainism during their rule.

Jainism

JainJainsJaina
This has led to the inference that the Kalabhra rulers may have ended grants to Hindu temples and persecuted the Brahmins, and supported Buddhism and Jainism during their rule.

Buddhadatta

A non-Tamil language Buddhist text Vinayaviniccaya by Buddhadatta was composed in the 5th-century Tamil region.

Shiva

Lord ShivaSivaLord Siva
It opens with an invocation to Shiva and many lines in Sanskrit written in Grantha script, followed by Tamil written in Vatteluttu script.

Grantha script

GranthaGrantha alphabetPallava grantha
It opens with an invocation to Shiva and many lines in Sanskrit written in Grantha script, followed by Tamil written in Vatteluttu script.

Vatteluttu script

VatteluttuVattezhuthuVatteluttu alphabet
It opens with an invocation to Shiva and many lines in Sanskrit written in Grantha script, followed by Tamil written in Vatteluttu script.

Muthuraja

AmbalakararMuttaraiyarMutharaiyar
T. A. Gopinath Rao equates them with the Mutharaiyars and an inscription in the Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchi mentions a Mutharaiyar named as Kalavara-Kalvan.

V. Venkayya

Based on the Velvikudi plates inscription above, R. Narasimhacharya and V. Venkayya believe them to have been Karnatas.

Kannada people

KannadigaKannadigasKannada
Based on the Velvikudi plates inscription above, R. Narasimhacharya and V. Venkayya believe them to have been Karnatas.

Bangalore

BengaluruBangalore, IndiaBangalore, Karnataka
K. R. Venkatarama Iyer suggests that the Kalabhras might have emerged from the Bangalore-Chittoor region early in the 5th century.

Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh

ChittoorChittoor District
K. R. Venkatarama Iyer suggests that the Kalabhras might have emerged from the Bangalore-Chittoor region early in the 5th century.

Manjushri

ManjusriMañjuśrīMonju Bosatsu
In "rare specimens", states Gupta, one finds an image of a seated Jain muni (monk) or the Buddhist Manjushri, or a short sword or the Swastika symbol.

Swastika

swastikasHakenkreuzNazi swastika
In "rare specimens", states Gupta, one finds an image of a seated Jain muni (monk) or the Buddhist Manjushri, or a short sword or the Swastika symbol.

Muziris

Muziris (Muchiri)Muziris Heritage ProjectMuchiri
According to Timothy Power – a scholar of Middle East and Mediterranean archaeology and history, coins and texts attest to an on-going trade between the Mediterranean, Middle East and South Indian ports such as Muziris until the 5th-century, but then suddenly there is no mention of Indian ports in the Mediterranean texts around mid-6th century.

Thirumal

MayonPerumalTirumal
According to F. E. Hardy, the palace ceremony of Kalabhras was dedicated to a Vishnu or Mayon (Krishna) temple.

Shaivism

ShaivaShaiviteSaivite
This supports the theory that they may have been Shaivite and Vaishnavite.