The Kalmar Union, c. 1400
A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
The Kalmar Union, c. 1400
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Scania in southern Sweden
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Municipal divisions of Sweden
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Stockholm Central Station
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Uppsala University (established 1477)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Kalmar Cathedral
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Kalmarunionen; Finnish: Kalmarin unioni; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia, agreed at Kalmar in Sweden, that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of present-day Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas colonies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland).

- Kalmar Union

This led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523.

- Sweden

8 related topics



Subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties between its constituent peoples.

Subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties between its constituent peoples.

Galdhøpiggen is the highest point in Scandinavia and is a part of the Scandinavian Mountains.
Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to Scania, a formerly Danish region that became Swedish in the seventeenth century.
The original areas inhabited (during the Bronze Age) by the peoples now known as Scandinavians included what is now Northern Germany (particularly Schleswig-Holstein), all of Denmark, southern Sweden, the southern coast of Norway and Åland in Finland while namesake Scania found itself in the centre.
Scandinavism—a Norwegian, a Dane and a Swede.
Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages ([[:File:Sami languages large 2.png|legend]])
The Kalmar Union (c. 1400)

In English usage, Scandinavia most commonly refers to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

Scandinavia was eventually Christianized, and the coming centuries saw various unions of Scandinavians nations, most notably the Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, which lasted for over 100 years until the Swedish king Gustav Vasa led Sweden to independence.


Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age
The Ladby ship, the largest ship burial found in Denmark.
Larger of the two Jelling stones, raised by Harald Bluetooth
Extent of the Dano-Norwegian Realm. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.
The Assault on Copenhagen on 11 February 1659 during the Second Northern War. Danish defenders under King Frederick III successfully repelled the forces of the Swedish Empire. Painting by Frederik Christian Lund.
The National Constitutional Assembly was convened by King Frederick VII in 1848 to adopt the Constitution of Denmark.
Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
A satellite image of Jutland and the Danish islands
A map showing major urban areas, islands and connecting bridges
Bay of Aarhus viewed from southern Djursland
Beech trees are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.
The European Environment Agency in Copenhagen
Christiansborg Palace houses the Folketing, the Supreme Court, and government offices.
King Christian V presiding over the Supreme Court in 1697.
The village of Kunoy on Kunoy island, in the Faroe Islands. Kalsoy island is at right.
Danish prime minister Mette Frederiksen (second from left) with foreign counterparts at the Nordic Council in Copenhagen, 2021
Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training
A proportional representation of Denmark exports, 2019
Lego bricks are produced by The Lego Group, headquartered in Billund.
Denmark is a major producer and exporter of pork products.
With an investment of 8.5 million euros over the ten-year construction period, Denmark confirms participation in E-ELT.
Middelgrunden, an offshore wind farm near Copenhagen
Denmark railway network
Copenhagen Airport is the largest airport in Scandinavia and the 15th-busiest in Europe.
Roskilde Cathedral has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a World Heritage Site.
The oldest surviving Danish lecture plan dated 1537 from the University of Copenhagen
Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen
Mjølnerparken in Copenhagen
Statue of philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Director Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme film movement
Grundtvig's Church in Copenhagen, an example of expressionist architecture
A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen (1836), by Christian Albrecht Jensen
Woman in Front of a Mirror, (1841), by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Smørrebrød, a variety of Danish open sandwiches piled high with delicacies
Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish football player of all time by the Danish Football Union

European Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.

In 1397, it joined Norway and Sweden to form the Kalmar Union, which persisted until the latter's secession in 1523.

Effigy of Queen Margaret from 1423 on her tomb in Roskilde Cathedral.

Margaret I of Denmark

Effigy of Queen Margaret from 1423 on her tomb in Roskilde Cathedral.
An allegory of the inception of the Kalmar Union: Queen Margaret crowning Eric of Pomerania king of Norway, as depicted in a stained-glass window at Pena Palace, Portugal.
Seal of Margaret, in known use 1381–1409.
Margaret's elaborate tomb, near subsequent royal sarcophagi at Roskilde Cathedral.
Bust of Margaret from her own time.
Margaret with Eric at his coronation, as Hans Peter Hansen imagined the scene in 1884.

Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter; March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was ruler of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (which included Finland) from the late 1380s until her death, and the founder of the Kalmar Union that joined the Scandinavian kingdoms together for over a century.

Margaret, free from fear of domestic sedition, could now give her undivided attention to Sweden, where mutinous nobles, led by Birger (son of Bridget and brother of Martha), were already in arms against their unpopular King Albert.

Union between Sweden and Norway

Sweden–Norway in 1904
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, Crown Prince of Sweden in 1810 and Norway in 1814, and King of Sweden and Norway in 1818. Portrait by Joseph Nicolas Jouy, after François-Joseph Kinson
King Charles XIII (Charles II in Norway)
Christian Frederik, hereditary prince of Denmark and Norway, King of Norway May–October 1814, and King of Denmark (as Christian VIII) 1839–48. Portrait by Johan Ludwig Lund 1813
Count Johan Caspar Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg, who warned Christian Frederik
Oscar Wergeland: The Norwegian Constitutional Assembly in 1814
Christian Magnus Falsen, at 32, was credited as being the constitution's father.
Swedish Crown Prince Charles John (Bernadotte), who staunchly opposed Norwegian independence, only to offer generous terms of a union
Map of Norway and Sweden in 1847, by Peter Andreas Munch
King Charles XIV John (Charles III John in Norway). Portrait by Fredric Westin
Poster promoting Scandinavism between Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
King Oscar II
Swedish and Norwegian flags in 1899, after the removal of the union badge from the merchant flag of Norway
The peace monument of Karlstad was erected on the city square in 1955, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union.
Norwegian soldiers at the border in September 1905. Photo by Narve Skarpmoen
State flag of Sweden (pre-1814–1815)
Flag of Norway (1814–1821)
Flag of Sweden and Norway (1818–1844)
State flag and naval ensign of Sweden and Norway (1815–1844)
Union naval jack and diplomatic flag (1844–1905)
Flag of Sweden (1844–1905)
Flag of Norway (1821–1844)
Flag of Norway (1844–1899)
Flag of Norway (1899–present)
State flag and naval ensign of Sweden (1844–1905)
Naval ensign of Norway (1844–1905) and state flag (1844–1899)
State flag of Norway (1899–present)
Royal standard in Sweden (1844–1905)
Royal standard in Norway (1844–1905)
Royal Swedish coat of arms (1814–1844)
Union and royal coat of arms (1844–1905)

Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union(en)), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, and known as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its peaceful dissolution in 1905.

Sweden and Norway had been united under the same crown on two previous occasions: from 1319 to 1343 and again briefly from 1449 to 1450 in opposition to Christian of Oldenburg who was elected king of the Kalmar Union by the Danes.


The two counties of Scania from 1719 to 1996
Letter from Eric of Pomerania dated 1437, with a description of the arms granted to the city of Malmö.
The coat of arms of Scania in an engraving from 1712 in Erik Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna.
Ale's Stones, a stone ship (burial monument) from c. 500 AD on the coast at Kåseberga, around ten kilometres (10 km) south east of Ystad.
Map of Denmark in the Middle Ages, Scania was together with the provinces Blekinge and Halland a part of Denmark
Front page of the latest and current peace treaty between Denmark and Sweden, Swedish version
The motorway through western Scania, E6, here at motorway service Glumslöv, is the artery of the western part of the province.
All local, regional and inter-regional train services within Scania (2018). In all, 72 stations are served, during day times at least one train per hour and direction. Many stations (especially in the west) have far better service than so. The most busy part is between Hyllie (Malmö) and Lund.
Land usage in Scania, showing hardwood forests (light green), pinewood forests (dark green), fields (yellow), garden and fruit (orange) and residential areas (red)
Aerial view of Scania near Lund
A typical Beech forest, the Western edge of Karlslund in Northern Landskrona
Pruned willows and rapefields are typical for this area of Sweden.
Typical Scanian coastline, here southern peak of Ven island in Øresund. The yellow colour indicates sand rather than chalk, while white colour at similar cliffs indicates chalk rather than sand
Map of the 33 municipalities of Scania. The western, yellow coloured municipalities, close to Øresund, have much higher population densities than the eastern ones
Eslöv church, built 1890 in Neo-Gothic style, sometimes known in Swedish as Eslöv Gothic.
The Øresund Bridge
The Annehem neighborhood in Lund
The Turning Torso in Malmö, the tallest building in Sweden.
Location of some SMHI temperature stations in Scania
Traditional half-timbered farm house of the southern plains in Scania.
The house of magistrate Jacob Hansen in Helsingborg, built in 1641.
The Old Church of Södra Åsum in Sjöbo Municipality — a typical example of a medieval Danish Scanian church.
Lund skyline, with the Cathedral towers.
Vittskövle Castle.
Traditional Scanian nuptial array according to Auguste Racinet, in Le costume historique.

Scania is the southernmost of the historical provinces (landskap) of Sweden.

The Malmö coat of arms had been granted in 1437, during the Kalmar Union, by Eric of Pomerania and contains a Pomeranian griffin's head.


Early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including the then Norwegian overseas possessions: the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and other possessions), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.

Early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including the then Norwegian overseas possessions: the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and other possessions), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.

Map of Denmark–Norway, c. 1780
Denmark–Norway and its possessions, c. 1800
Map of Denmark–Norway, c. 1780
The Carta marina, an early map of the Nordic countries, made around the end of the Kalmar Union and the start of Denmark–Norway
Christian IV of Denmark
Naval battle between the frigate and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden established and formed the Kalmar Union in 1397.


Kalmar Castle today
Kalmar Cathedral today
The seal of Kalmar, 13th century
Engraving from Suecia antiqua et hodierna, circa 1700
Town plan, 1906
Kalmar Castle
Kalmar Cathedral
Town hall
In 1972, the {{convert|6|km|0|abbr=on}} long Öland bridge was built from Kalmar to the town of Färjestaden on Öland
Kalmar County Museum
Main square
Houses on the main square
Street in Kalmar
Square in Kalmar
Scenic photograph of Kalmar Castle in the summer sun
Mermaid sculpture Kalmar

Kalmar is a city in the southeast of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea.

The tower was continuously expanded in the 13th century, and as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly there between the heads of state of Sweden and Norway, and on 13 July 1397, the Kalmar Union treaty was signed, which would last until 1523.

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, c. undefined 1523

Christian II of Denmark

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, c. undefined 1523
Isabella of Austria, Christian's wife.
Christian and Isabella on an altar in Elsinore.
The Stockholm bloodbath depicted in a 1676 engraving by Dionysius Padtbrugge.
Christian II at Sønderborg Castle, painting by Carl Bloch, 1871.
Christian's gravestone at Odense.
Three children of Christian II (Dorothea, John and Christina), by Jan Mabuse, 1526.

Christian II (1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union who reigned as King of Denmark and Norway, from 1513 until 1523, and Sweden from 1520 until 1521.