Kamikaze

USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), an aircraft carrier, was hit by two kamikazes on 11 May 1945, resulting in 389 personnel dead or missing and 264 wounded.
The Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon, by Kikuchi Yōsai, 1847
Lt. Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex (CV-9) on 25 November 1944. The attack left 15 killed and 44 wounded. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank trails fuel vapor and/or smoke.
Model 52c Zeros ready to take part in a kamikaze attack (early 1945)
A kamikaze aircraft explodes after crashing into Essex flight deck amidships 25 November 1944.
Rear Admiral Masafumi Arima
26 May 1945. Corporal Yukio Araki, holding a puppy, with four other pilots of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron at Bansei, Kagoshima. Araki died the following day, at the age of 17, in a suicide attack on ships near Okinawa.
St Lo attacked by kamikazes, 25 October 1944
Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a "Judy" on the deck of USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71). The "Judy" made a run on the ship approaching from dead astern; it was met by effective fire and the aircraft passed over the island and exploded. Parts of the aircraft and the pilot were scattered over the flight deck and the forecastle.
An A6M Zero (A6M2 Model 21) towards the end of its run at the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) on 25 October 1944. The aircraft exploded in mid-air moments after the picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.
An A6M5 "Zero" diving towards American ships in the Philippines in early 1945
USS Louisville (CA-28) is struck by a Mitsubishi Ki-51 kamikaze at the Battle of Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945.
USS Missouri (BB-63) shortly before being hit by a Mitsubishi A6M Zero (visible top left), 11 April 1945
Aircraft carrier after being struck by a kamikaze off the Sakishima Islands. The kamikaze made a dent 3 m long and 0.6 m wide and deep in the armored flight deck. Eight crew members were killed, forty-seven were wounded, and 11 aircraft were destroyed.
Ugaki, shortly before taking off in a Yokosuka D4Y3 to participate in one of the final kamikaze strikes, 15 August 1945
A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) watches a kamikaze aircraft dive at USS Intrepid (CV-11) 25 November 1944. Over 75 men were killed or missing and 100 wounded.
Japanese Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka ("cherry blossom"), a specially built rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft used towards the end of the war. The U.S. called them Baka Bombs ("idiot bombs").
First recruits for Japanese Kamikaze suicide pilots in 1944
Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Nakajima Ki-43-IIIa Hayabusa.

Kamikaze, officially Shinpū Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (神風特別攻撃隊), were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who flew suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, intending to destroy warships more effectively than with conventional air attacks.

- Kamikaze
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), an aircraft carrier, was hit by two kamikazes on 11 May 1945, resulting in 389 personnel dead or missing and 264 wounded.

78 related topics

Alpha

The light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23) on fire, east of Luzon, on 24 October 1944

Battle of Leyte Gulf

The largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved.

The largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved.

The light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23) on fire, east of Luzon, on 24 October 1944
The four main actions in the Battle of Leyte Gulf: 1 Battle of the Sibuyan Sea 2 Battle of Surigao Strait 3 Battle off Cape Engaño 4 Battle off Samar. Leyte Gulf is north of 2 and west of 4. The island of Leyte is west of the gulf.
departing Brunei in October 1944 for the Battle of Leyte Gulf
hit by a bomb near her forward gun turret in the Sibuyan Sea, 24 October 1944
USS Princeton (CVL-23) explodes at 15:23
Musashi under aerial bombardment
The Battle of Surigao Strait
USS West Virginia (BB-48) firing on the Japanese fleet
The Battle off Samar
USS St. Lo (CVE-63) exploding after a kamikaze strike.
The Japanese aircraft carriers, left, and (probably) come under attack by dive bombers early in the Battle off Cape Engaño.
The crew of salute as the flag is lowered on the listing carrier after an airstrike. She was the last carrier participating in the attack on Pearl Harbor to be sunk.
Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey – Commander U.S. Third Fleet at Leyte Gulf
A 60th-anniversary memorial ceremony in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, on 20 October 2004
The Battle of Surigao Strait Memorial in Surigao City, Philippines.

This was the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized kamikaze attacks, and the last naval battle between battleships in history.

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese Navy

The navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II.

The navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II.

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185
A 16th-century Japanese "Atakebune" coastal naval war vessel, bearing the symbol of the Tokugawa Clan.
No. 6 Odaiba battery, one of the original Edo-era battery islands. These batteries are defensive structures built to withstand naval intrusions.
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, wooden paddle steamer warship and ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The ironclad Fusō, between 1878 and 1891
The ironclad corvette
Marshal-Admiral Marquis Saigo Tsugumichi commanded Japanese expeditionary forces as a lieutenant-general in the Taiwan expedition.
The British-built steam ironclad warship was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.
The French-built protected cruiser Matsushima, the flagship of the IJN at the Battle of the Yalu River (1894)
The protected cruiser Hashidate, built domestically at the arsenal of Yokosuka
The torpedo boat Hayabusa
The Chinese Beiyang Fleet ironclad battleship Zhenyuan captured by IJN in 1895.
The armored cruiser Azuma
The pre-dreadnought battleship Mikasa, among the most powerful battleships of her time, in 1905, was one of the six battleships ordered as part of the program.
Marshal-Admiral Viscount Inoue Yoshika, 1900
The pre-dreadnought battleship Katori
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after capitulation in 1905. From left wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruiser Pallada
Holland 1-class submarine, the first Japanese navy submarine, purchased during the Russo Japanese War
The semi-dreadnought battleship Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship
The dreadnought battleship Settsu
The dreadnought battleship Kawachi
The seaplane carrier conducted the world's first sea-launched air raids in September 1914.
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal immediately after the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923
Photograph shows the super-dreadnought battleship Nagato, between ca. 1920 and ca. 1925
The super-dreadnought battleship Mutsu
The planned Tosa-class battleship Tosa being prepared for scuttling at Kure on 31 January 1925.
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk fighter to Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, 1921
, the world's first purpose built aircraft carrier, completed in 1922
IJN super-dreadnought battleships Yamashiro, Fusō, and battlecruiser Haruna, Tokyo Bay, 1930s
Type 91 Aerial Torpedo on IJN aircraft carrier Akagi flight deck.
IJN Yamato-class Battleships Yamato and Musashi moored in Truk Lagoon, in 1943
IJN Ha-101 class submarines Ha-105, Ha-106 and Ha-109 designed as transport submarines to resupply isolated island garrisons, 1945.
Aft view of the flight deck of the IJN aircraft carrier from the island, 19 October 1945
IJN Aircraft carrier Ibuki under dismantling operation at Sasebo Naval Arsenal. October 1946
Replica of the Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki
A Chinese illustration of a Red seal ship.
The sailing frigate Shōhei Maru (1854) was built from Dutch technical drawings.
The screw-driven steam corvette {{Ship|Japanese warship|Kanrin Maru||2}}, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1857
The gunboat Chiyoda, was Japan's first domestically built steam warship. It was completed in May 1866.<ref>Jentschura p. 113</ref>
The French-built ironclad warship Kōtetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern ironclad, 1869

During the last phase of the war, the Imperial Japanese Navy resorted to a series of desperate measures, including a variety of Special Attack Units which were popularly called kamikaze.

US Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, 18 May 1945.

Battle of Okinawa

Major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Army (USA) and United States Marine Corps (USMC) forces against the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

Major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Army (USA) and United States Marine Corps (USMC) forces against the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

US Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, 18 May 1945.
A map of US operations at Okinawa
Tekketsu Kinnōtai child soldiers on Okinawa
The battleship USS Idaho (BB-42) shelling Okinawa on 1 April 1945
Generals Mitsuru Ushijima, Isamu Chō and other officers of the Thirty-Second Army in Okinawa, April 1945
US Marine reinforcements wade ashore to support the beachhead on Okinawa, 1 April 1945.
A 6th Marine Division demolition crew watches explosive charges detonate and destroy a Japanese cave, May 1945.
US Marines pass a dead Japanese soldier in a destroyed village, April 1945.
American soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division listen impassively to radio reports of Victory in Europe Day on 8 May 1945.
Soldiers of the 96th Infantry Division attack Japanese positions on Big Apple Ridge.
Lt. Col. Richard P. Ross Jr., commander of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines braves sniper fire to place the United States' colors over the parapets of Shuri Castle on 30 May. This flag was first raised over Cape Gloucester and then Peleliu.
A Japanese prisoner of war sits behind barbed wire after he and 306 others were captured within the last 24 hours of the battle by 6th Marine Division.
Two US Coast Guardsmen pay homage to their comrade killed in the Ryukyu Islands.
Two wounded American soldiers make their way to a medical aid station on Okinawa, 20 April 1945.
Two US M4 Sherman tanks knocked out by Japanese artillery at Bloody Ridge, 20 April 1945
The last picture of US Army Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. (right), taken on 18 June 1945. Later in the day, he was killed by Japanese artillery fire.
The last picture of US Army Brig. Gen. Claudius Miller Easley, taken on 19 June 1945. He was later killed by Japanese machine-gun fire.
A group of Japanese prisoners taken on the island of Okuku in June 1945
A US Marine Corps Stinson Sentinel observation plane flies over the razed Naha, capital of Okinawa, in May 1945.
Two US Marines share a foxhole with an Okinawan war orphan in April 1945.
Overcoming the civilian resistance on Okinawa was aided by US propaganda leaflets, one of which is being read by a prisoner awaiting transport.
The Cornerstone of Peace Memorial with names of all military and civilians from all countries who died in the Battle of Okinawa
Marines celebrate Victory over Japan Day on Okinawa, August 1945
Japanese commanders of Okinawa (photographed early in February 1945). In center: (1) Admiral Minoru Ota, (2) Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, (3) Lt. Gen. Isamu Cho, (4) Col. Hitoshi Kanayama, (5) Col. Kikuji Hongo, and (6) Col. Hiromichi Yahara
Japanese soldiers arriving on Okinawa
Japanese high school girls wave farewell to a kamikaze pilot departing to Okinawa
A US military diagram of typical Japanese hill defensive tunnels and installations
A Japanese Type 89 150mm gun hidden inside a cave defensive system
A map of Okinawa's airfields, 1945
The super battleship {{Ship|Japanese battleship|Yamato||2}} explodes after persistent attacks from US aircraft.
American aircraft carrier {{USS|Bunker Hill|CV-17|6}} burns after being hit by two kamikaze planes within 30 seconds.
Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Avengers, Seafires and Fireflies on {{HMS|Implacable|R86|6}} warm up their engines before taking off.
{{HMS|Formidable|67|6}} on fire after a kamikaze attack on May 4. The ship was out of action for fifty minutes.

The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of Japanese kamikaze attacks and the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island.

A kamikaze strikes St. Lo

USS St. Lo

Of the United States Navy during World War II.

Of the United States Navy during World War II.

A kamikaze strikes St. Lo

On 25 October 1944, St. Lo became the first major warship to sink as the result of a kamikaze attack.

A profile of the design of USS Takanis Bay (CVE-89), which was shared by all Casablanca-class escort carriers.

USS Fanshaw Bay

Of the United States Navy.

Of the United States Navy.

A profile of the design of USS Takanis Bay (CVE-89), which was shared by all Casablanca-class escort carriers.
Fanshaw Bay moored at Brisbane, Australia, on 10 February 1944, following a transport mission. Note that there are still Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighters stored on-board her flight deck.
Sailors inspect the damage created from the 250 lb bomb which smashed through Fanshaw Bays aft aircraft elevator.
Photographed from the escort carrier Kitkun Bay, Fanshaw Bay is shown surrounded by shell splashes from a Japanese battleship, likely the IJN or . In the foreground, three FM-2 Wildcat fighters are preparing for launching.
Rear Admiral Sprague photographed on the bridge of Fanshaw Bay, as the Okinawa landings proceeded, circa April 1945.

One 5 in/38 caliber dual-purpose gun was mounted on the stern. Anti-aircraft defense was provided by eight Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns in single mounts, as well as twelve Oerlikon 20 mm cannons, which were mounted around the perimeter of the deck. By the end of the war, Casablanca-class carriers had been modified to carry thirty 20 mm cannons, and the amount of Bofors 40 mm guns had been doubled to sixteen, by putting them into twin mounts. These modifications were in response to increasing casualties due to kamikaze attacks. Casablanca-class escort carriers were designed to carry 27 aircraft, but the hangar deck could accommodate more. During the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, the beginning of the Philippines campaign, and the Battle off Samar, she carried 16 FM-2 Wildcat fighters, and 12 TBM-1C Avenger torpedo bombers, for a total of 28 aircraft.

USS Port Royal (CG-73), a guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992

Cruiser

Type of warship.

Type of warship.

USS Port Royal (CG-73), a guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992
Russian Varyag in the Pacific Ocean
, the Royal Navy's first armored cruiser.
The Russian protected cruiser
HMS Lion (1910)
, a World War I era light cruiser, served as a headquarters and training vessel in Belfast until 2011.
Romanian coastguard cruiser Grivița
Italian cruiser.
USS Atlanta (CL-51).
Russian Navy battlecruiser of the ,
China's latest Type 055 destroyer has been classified by the United States Department of Defense as a cruiser because of its large size and armament.
One cruiser alternative studied in the late 1980s by the United States was variously entitled a Mission Essential Unit (MEU) or CG V/STOL.
of the French Navy, launched in 1961, decommissioned in 2010

The biggest guns in the American force were 5 in/38 caliber guns, while the Japanese had 14 in, 16 in, and 18.1 in guns. Aircraft from six additional escort carriers also participated for a total of around 330 US aircraft, a mix of F6F Hellcat fighters and TBF Avenger torpedo bombers. The Japanese had four battleships including Yamato, six heavy cruisers, two small light cruisers, and 11 destroyers. The Japanese force had earlier been driven off by air attack, losing Yamatos sister . Admiral Halsey then decided to use his Third Fleet carrier force to attack the Japanese carrier group, located well to the north of Samar, which was actually a decoy group with few aircraft. The Japanese were desperately short of aircraft and pilots at this point in the war, and Leyte Gulf was the first battle in which kamikaze attacks were used.

Escort carrier

Escort carrier

Small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II.

Small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II.

Escort carrier
USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), burning from earlier gunfire damage, is bracketed by a salvo from a Japanese heavy cruiser (faintly visible in the background, center-right) shortly before sinking during the Battle off Samar.
Model of the Casablanca-class Gambier Bay at USS Midway museum

Among their crews, CVE was sarcastically said to stand for "Combustible, Vulnerable, and Expendable", and the CVEs were called “Kaiser coffins" in honor of Casablanca-class manufacturer Henry J. Kaiser. Magazine protection was minimal in comparison to fleet aircraft carriers. was sunk within minutes by a single torpedo, and exploded from undetermined causes with very heavy loss of life. Three escort carriers—USS St. Lo (CVE-63), USS Ommaney Bay (CVE-79) and USS Bismarck Sea (CVE-95)—were destroyed by kamikazes, the largest ships to meet such a fate.

Mitsubishi A6M Zero

Long-range carrier-based fighter aircraft formerly manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company, a part of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and was operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945.

Long-range carrier-based fighter aircraft formerly manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company, a part of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and was operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945.

Mitsubishi A6M2 "Zero" Model 21 takes off from the aircraft carrier, to attack Pearl Harbor.
The cockpit (starboard console) of an A6M2 which crashed into Building 52 at Fort Kamehameha during the attack on Pearl Harbor, killing the pilot.
Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943
A6M2 Zero photo c. 2004
Carrier A6M2 and A6M3 Zeros from the aircraft carrier Zuikaku preparing for a mission at Rabaul
A6M3 Model 22, flown by Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa over the Solomon Islands, 1943
Wrecked A6M Zero in Peleliu jungle
The Akutan Zero is inspected by US military personnel on Akutan Island on 11 July 1942.
730px
A Zero over China
A6M2 "Zero" Model 21 of Shōkaku prior to attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.
A6M3 Model 32.
Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52s among other aircraft types abandoned by the Japanese at the end of the war (Atsugi naval air base) and captured by US forces.
A6M5c Zeros preparing to take part in a kamikaze attack in early 1945
A6M8 Type 64: one of two prototypes being tested by US Forces at Misawa Airbase
A6M2 Model 21 on display at the Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, United States. This aircraft was made airworthy in the early 1980s before it was grounded in 2002.
A6M5 on display at the National Air and Space Museum, United States
A6M5 on display at Yūshūkan in Tokyo, Japan
A6M on display at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan
An A6M at the National Museum of the USAF, painted to represent a section leader's aircraft from the Japanese aircraft carrier Zuihō during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea.
2017 Red Bull Air Race of Chiba (N553TT)
A6M on display at Dirgantara Mandala Museum, Indonesia
Orthographically projected diagram of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero

During the final phases, it was also adapted for use in kamikaze operations.

Ulithi atoll

Ulithi

Atoll in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, about 191 km east of Yap.

Atoll in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, about 191 km east of Yap.

Ulithi atoll
Map of Ulithi Atoll
Sketch by Walter Allan Finlayson: Officer's Hut on Mog Mog Island, ULITHI, May 1945 WWII
Sorlen Island and the north anchorage of Ulithi atoll, late 1944.
U.S. naval forces including carriers in the distance at anchor in Ulithi, March 1945
USS Iowa (BB-61) at a floating drydock at Ulithi
USS Mississinewa burns while sinking following an attack by Japanese kaiten.
USS Randolph undergoing repairs following a kamikaze attack at Ulithi
The first mail call in almost three months for Marine Aircraft Group 45., 1944
The musical group "Tune Toppers" performs on Ulithi, 1944.

On 11 March 1945, in a mission known as Operation Tan No. 2, several long range aircraft flying from southern Japan attempted a nighttime kamikaze attack on the naval base.

A Kaiten, Type 1, at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial Museum

Kaiten

Kaiten (回天) were crewed torpedoes and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.

Kaiten (回天) were crewed torpedoes and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.

A Kaiten, Type 1, at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial Museum
Kaiten Type 1 periscope at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial
Map of known Kaiten base locations at the end of World War II
A Kaiten Type 1 being trial-launched from the light cruiser Kitakami
Schematic of a Kaiten type 1
A Kaiten Type I at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial Museum
Schematic of a Kaiten type 2
Inside the hydrogen peroxide chamber of a type 2 Kaiten
Schematic of a Kaiten type 4
Schematic of a Kaiten type 10
A kaiten type 10 on display at the Yamato Museum
USS Mississinewa (AO-59), victim of a kaiten attack on 20 November 1944
USS Underhill
Submarine I-47 as Kikusui group on 8 November 1944
Submarine I-56 as Kongō group on 21 December 1944
Submarine I-47 as Kongō group on 25 December 1944
Submarine I-48 as Kongō group on 1 January 1945
Submarine I-370 as Chihaya group on 21 February 1945
Submarine I-44 as Tatara group on 3 April 1945
Submarine I-36 as Tembu group
Submarine I-47 as Tembu group on 20 April 1945
Submarine I-367 as Simbu group on 2 May 1945
Submarine I-361 as Todoroki group on 23 May 1945
Submarine I-165 as Todoroki group on 15 June 1945
Submarine I-367 as Tamon group on 19 July 1945
Submarine I-363 as Tamon group in August 1945
Light cruiser Kitakami on 20 January 1945 at Sasebo Naval Arsenal
Kaiten Type 1 being trial launched from the light cruiser Kitakami (port)
Type D destroyers on 11 September 1945 at Kure Naval Base

For the Navy, this meant Kamikaze planes, Shinyo suicide boats, Kaiten submarines, and Fukuryu suicide divers or human mines.