A report on Ulithi and Kamikaze

Ulithi atoll
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), an aircraft carrier, was hit by two kamikazes on 11 May 1945, resulting in 389 personnel dead or missing and 264 wounded.
Map of Ulithi Atoll
The Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon, by Kikuchi Yōsai, 1847
Sketch by Walter Allan Finlayson: Officer's Hut on Mog Mog Island, ULITHI, May 1945 WWII
Lt. Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex (CV-9) on 25 November 1944. The attack left 15 killed and 44 wounded. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank trails fuel vapor and/or smoke.
Sorlen Island and the north anchorage of Ulithi atoll, late 1944.
Model 52c Zeros ready to take part in a kamikaze attack (early 1945)
U.S. naval forces including carriers in the distance at anchor in Ulithi, March 1945
A kamikaze aircraft explodes after crashing into Essex flight deck amidships 25 November 1944.
USS Iowa (BB-61) at a floating drydock at Ulithi
Rear Admiral Masafumi Arima
USS Mississinewa burns while sinking following an attack by Japanese kaiten.
26 May 1945. Corporal Yukio Araki, holding a puppy, with four other pilots of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron at Bansei, Kagoshima. Araki died the following day, at the age of 17, in a suicide attack on ships near Okinawa.
USS Randolph undergoing repairs following a kamikaze attack at Ulithi
St Lo attacked by kamikazes, 25 October 1944
The first mail call in almost three months for Marine Aircraft Group 45., 1944
Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a "Judy" on the deck of USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71). The "Judy" made a run on the ship approaching from dead astern; it was met by effective fire and the aircraft passed over the island and exploded. Parts of the aircraft and the pilot were scattered over the flight deck and the forecastle.
The musical group "Tune Toppers" performs on Ulithi, 1944.
An A6M Zero (A6M2 Model 21) towards the end of its run at the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) on 25 October 1944. The aircraft exploded in mid-air moments after the picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.
An A6M5 "Zero" diving towards American ships in the Philippines in early 1945
USS Louisville (CA-28) is struck by a Mitsubishi Ki-51 kamikaze at the Battle of Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945.
USS Missouri (BB-63) shortly before being hit by a Mitsubishi A6M Zero (visible top left), 11 April 1945
Aircraft carrier after being struck by a kamikaze off the Sakishima Islands. The kamikaze made a dent 3 m long and 0.6 m wide and deep in the armored flight deck. Eight crew members were killed, forty-seven were wounded, and 11 aircraft were destroyed.
Ugaki, shortly before taking off in a Yokosuka D4Y3 to participate in one of the final kamikaze strikes, 15 August 1945
A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) watches a kamikaze aircraft dive at USS Intrepid (CV-11) 25 November 1944. Over 75 men were killed or missing and 100 wounded.
Japanese Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka ("cherry blossom"), a specially built rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft used towards the end of the war. The U.S. called them Baka Bombs ("idiot bombs").
First recruits for Japanese Kamikaze suicide pilots in 1944
Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Nakajima Ki-43-IIIa Hayabusa.
Kamikaze damage to the destroyer USS Newcomb (DD-586) following action off Okinawa, Newcomb was damaged beyond economical repair and scrapped after the war.

On 11 March 1945, in a mission known as Operation Tan No. 2, several long range aircraft flying from southern Japan attempted a nighttime kamikaze attack on the naval base.

- Ulithi

On 11 March, the U.S. carrier USS Randolph (CV-15) was hit and moderately damaged at Ulithi Atoll, in the Caroline Islands, by a kamikaze that had flown almost 4000 km from Japan, in a mission called Operation Tan No. 2.

- Kamikaze
Ulithi atoll

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Overall

USS Randolph (CV-15) alongside a repair ship at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on March 13, 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from the kamikaze hit on March 11.

Operation Tan No. 2

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USS Randolph (CV-15) alongside a repair ship at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on March 13, 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from the kamikaze hit on March 11.

Operation Tan No. 2 (第二次丹作戰, Dainiji Tan Sakusen) was a long-range kamikaze mission directed at the main Allied naval fleet anchorage at Ulithi Atoll in the western Pacific on March 11, 1945 during the Pacific campaign of World War II.

Randolph alongside the repair ship USS Jason (AR-8) at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on 13 March 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from a kamikaze hit on 11 March. Photographed from a USS Miami (CL-89) floatplane

USS Randolph (CV-15)

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One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy.

One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy.

Randolph alongside the repair ship USS Jason (AR-8) at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on 13 March 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from a kamikaze hit on 11 March. Photographed from a USS Miami (CL-89) floatplane
Randolph at anchor in the Western Pacific in June 1945
Randolph after her SCB-27A modernization
HSS-1 Seabat of HS-9 lands on Randolph in July 1959
Medical debriefing aboard Randolph of Mercury Astronaut John Glenn (center), after the orbital flight of Friendship 7 on 20 February 1962
Randolph in port, 1945
Band playing in the hangar of Randolph in 1945
F4U-4 of VBF-82 on Randolph in 1946
Track meet in Boston aboard Randolph in 1947
Randolph underway in 1954.jpg
SSM-N-8 Regulus is launched from Randolph in early 1956
Starboard elevator of Randolph, 1958
Randolph underway in 1963
Randolph underway in 1967

On 20 January 1945, Randolph departed San Francisco for Ulithi, from which she sortied on 10 February with Task Force 58 (TF 58).

Riding at anchor at Ulithi on 11 March, a Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" kamikaze hit Randolph on the starboard side aft just below the flight deck, killing 27 men, including four reported missing and five transferred to the hospital ship USS Relief (AH-1) where they later died, and wounding 105, during Operation Tan No. 2.

A Kaiten, Type 1, at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial Museum

Kaiten

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Kaiten (回天) were crewed torpedoes and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.

Kaiten (回天) were crewed torpedoes and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.

A Kaiten, Type 1, at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial Museum
Kaiten Type 1 periscope at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial
Map of known Kaiten base locations at the end of World War II
A Kaiten Type 1 being trial-launched from the light cruiser Kitakami
Schematic of a Kaiten type 1
A Kaiten Type I at the Tokyo Yasukuni War Memorial Museum
Schematic of a Kaiten type 2
Inside the hydrogen peroxide chamber of a type 2 Kaiten
Schematic of a Kaiten type 4
Schematic of a Kaiten type 10
A kaiten type 10 on display at the Yamato Museum
USS Mississinewa (AO-59), victim of a kaiten attack on 20 November 1944
USS Underhill
Submarine I-47 as Kikusui group on 8 November 1944
Submarine I-56 as Kongō group on 21 December 1944
Submarine I-47 as Kongō group on 25 December 1944
Submarine I-48 as Kongō group on 1 January 1945
Submarine I-370 as Chihaya group on 21 February 1945
Submarine I-44 as Tatara group on 3 April 1945
Submarine I-36 as Tembu group
Submarine I-47 as Tembu group on 20 April 1945
Submarine I-367 as Simbu group on 2 May 1945
Submarine I-361 as Todoroki group on 23 May 1945
Submarine I-165 as Todoroki group on 15 June 1945
Submarine I-367 as Tamon group on 19 July 1945
Submarine I-363 as Tamon group in August 1945
Light cruiser Kitakami on 20 January 1945 at Sasebo Naval Arsenal
Kaiten Type 1 being trial launched from the light cruiser Kitakami (port)
Type D destroyers on 11 September 1945 at Kure Naval Base

For the Navy, this meant Kamikaze planes, Shinyo suicide boats, Kaiten submarines, and Fukuryu suicide divers or human mines.

United States sources claim that the only sinkings achieved by Kaiten attacks were the fleet oiler USS Mississinewa (AO-59) anchored at Ulithi on 20 November 1944, with the loss of 63 men; a small infantry landing craft (LCI-600), with the loss of three men; and the destroyer escort USS Underhill (DE-682) while operating northeast of Cape Engaño on 24 July 1945, with the loss of 113 men.

The light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23) on fire, east of Luzon, on 24 October 1944

Battle of Leyte Gulf

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The largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved.

The largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved.

The light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23) on fire, east of Luzon, on 24 October 1944
The four main actions in the Battle of Leyte Gulf: 1 Battle of the Sibuyan Sea 2 Battle of Surigao Strait 3 Battle off Cape Engaño 4 Battle off Samar. Leyte Gulf is north of 2 and west of 4. The island of Leyte is west of the gulf.
departing Brunei in October 1944 for the Battle of Leyte Gulf
hit by a bomb near her forward gun turret in the Sibuyan Sea, 24 October 1944
USS Princeton (CVL-23) explodes at 15:23
Musashi under aerial bombardment
The Battle of Surigao Strait
USS West Virginia (BB-48) firing on the Japanese fleet
The Battle off Samar
USS St. Lo (CVE-63) exploding after a kamikaze strike.
The Japanese aircraft carriers, left, and (probably) come under attack by dive bombers early in the Battle off Cape Engaño.
The crew of salute as the flag is lowered on the listing carrier after an airstrike. She was the last carrier participating in the attack on Pearl Harbor to be sunk.
Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey – Commander U.S. Third Fleet at Leyte Gulf
A 60th-anniversary memorial ceremony in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, on 20 October 2004
The Battle of Surigao Strait Memorial in Surigao City, Philippines.

This was the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized kamikaze attacks, and the last naval battle between battleships in history.

On 22 October, Halsey had detached two of his carrier groups to the fleet base at Ulithi to take on provisions and rearm.