A report on Kamikaze

USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), an aircraft carrier, was hit by two kamikazes on 11 May 1945, resulting in 389 personnel dead or missing and 264 wounded.
The Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon, by Kikuchi Yōsai, 1847
Lt. Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex (CV-9) on 25 November 1944. The attack left 15 killed and 44 wounded. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank trails fuel vapor and/or smoke.
Model 52c Zeros ready to take part in a kamikaze attack (early 1945)
A kamikaze aircraft explodes after crashing into Essex flight deck amidships 25 November 1944.
Rear Admiral Masafumi Arima
26 May 1945. Corporal Yukio Araki, holding a puppy, with four other pilots of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron at Bansei, Kagoshima. Araki died the following day, at the age of 17, in a suicide attack on ships near Okinawa.
St Lo attacked by kamikazes, 25 October 1944
Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a "Judy" on the deck of USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71). The "Judy" made a run on the ship approaching from dead astern; it was met by effective fire and the aircraft passed over the island and exploded. Parts of the aircraft and the pilot were scattered over the flight deck and the forecastle.
An A6M Zero (A6M2 Model 21) towards the end of its run at the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) on 25 October 1944. The aircraft exploded in mid-air moments after the picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.
An A6M5 "Zero" diving towards American ships in the Philippines in early 1945
USS Louisville (CA-28) is struck by a Mitsubishi Ki-51 kamikaze at the Battle of Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945.
USS Missouri (BB-63) shortly before being hit by a Mitsubishi A6M Zero (visible top left), 11 April 1945
Aircraft carrier after being struck by a kamikaze off the Sakishima Islands. The kamikaze made a dent 3 m long and 0.6 m wide and deep in the armored flight deck. Eight crew members were killed, forty-seven were wounded, and 11 aircraft were destroyed.
Ugaki, shortly before taking off in a Yokosuka D4Y3 to participate in one of the final kamikaze strikes, 15 August 1945
A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) watches a kamikaze aircraft dive at USS Intrepid (CV-11) 25 November 1944. Over 75 men were killed or missing and 100 wounded.
Japanese Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka ("cherry blossom"), a specially built rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft used towards the end of the war. The U.S. called them Baka Bombs ("idiot bombs").
First recruits for Japanese Kamikaze suicide pilots in 1944
Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Nakajima Ki-43-IIIa Hayabusa.
Kamikaze damage to the destroyer USS Newcomb (DD-586) following action off Okinawa, Newcomb was damaged beyond economical repair and scrapped after the war.

Kamikaze, officially Shinpū Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (神風特別攻撃隊), were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who flew suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, intending to destroy warships more effectively than with conventional air attacks.

- Kamikaze
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), an aircraft carrier, was hit by two kamikazes on 11 May 1945, resulting in 389 personnel dead or missing and 264 wounded.

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Escort carrier

Escort carrier

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Small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II.

Small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II.

Escort carrier
USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), burning from earlier gunfire damage, is bracketed by a salvo from a Japanese heavy cruiser (faintly visible in the background, center-right) shortly before sinking during the Battle off Samar.
Model of the Casablanca-class Gambier Bay at USS Midway museum

Among their crews, CVE was sarcastically said to stand for "Combustible, Vulnerable, and Expendable", and the CVEs were called “Kaiser coffins" in honor of Casablanca-class manufacturer Henry J. Kaiser. Magazine protection was minimal in comparison to fleet aircraft carriers. was sunk within minutes by a single torpedo, and exploded from undetermined causes with very heavy loss of life. Three escort carriers—USS St. Lo (CVE-63), USS Ommaney Bay (CVE-79) and USS Bismarck Sea (CVE-95)—were destroyed by kamikazes, the largest ships to meet such a fate.

Lt. Seki in flightgear

Yukio Seki

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Japanese naval aviator of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II.

Japanese naval aviator of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II.

Lt. Seki in flightgear
Yukio Seki in 1939
The men of the first kamikaze unit to make an attack on a US ship are offered a ceremonial toast of water as a farewell. Yukio Seki, the leader of the unit, is shown with a cup in his hands, and Vice Admiral Takijirō Ōnishi, who organized the first kamikaze unit, is in the middle of the photo facing the five men of the Shikishima Unit. The man offering the cup is likely Seki's officer, Asaichi Tamai
Near miss on USS White Plains.
St. Lo's magazine detonates after Seki's attack

As a kamikaze pilot, Lieutenant Seki led one of the three fighter groups of the second official kamikaze attack in World War II (the first official attack was an unsuccessful attempt led by Yoshiyasu Kunō on October 21, 1944).

The newly commissioned Franklin departing Norfolk in February 1944

USS Franklin (CV-13)

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One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy, and the fifth US Navy ship to bear the name.

One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy, and the fifth US Navy ship to bear the name.

The newly commissioned Franklin departing Norfolk in February 1944
USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) (left) and Franklin hit by kamikazes, 30 October 1944
USS Franklin on fire after being struck by two bombs on 19 March 1945
* Franklin listing, with crew on deck, 19 March 1945
The burning Franklin with USS Santa Fe (CL-60) alongside
Aft 5-inch gun turret on fire, 19 March 1945
Franklin approaching New York, 26 April 1945
USS Franklin, anchored in New York harbor, 28 April 1945
Franklin at Bayonne in 1964
Franklin in January 1945
F4U-1D of VF-5 on Franklin in 1945
Franklin 's bridge on 19 March 1945
Joseph T. O'Callahan gives last rites to an injured crewman aboard Franklin on 19 March 1945
Bow of the badly damaged Franklin in April 1945
Franklin and Marblehead off New York in 1945
Franklin under repair at the Brooklyn Navy Yard in 1945
Franklin laid up in the early 1960s

Franklin and USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) (damaged by two kamikazes) were the only Essex-class carriers not to see active service as aircraft carriers after World War II.

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese Navy

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The navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II.

The navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II.

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185
A 16th-century Japanese "Atakebune" coastal naval war vessel, bearing the symbol of the Tokugawa Clan.
No. 6 Odaiba battery, one of the original Edo-era battery islands. These batteries are defensive structures built to withstand naval intrusions.
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, wooden paddle steamer warship and ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The ironclad Fusō, between 1878 and 1891
The ironclad corvette
Marshal-Admiral Marquis Saigo Tsugumichi commanded Japanese expeditionary forces as a lieutenant-general in the Taiwan expedition.
The British-built steam ironclad warship was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.
The French-built protected cruiser Matsushima, the flagship of the IJN at the Battle of the Yalu River (1894)
The protected cruiser Hashidate, built domestically at the arsenal of Yokosuka
The torpedo boat Hayabusa
The Chinese Beiyang Fleet ironclad battleship Zhenyuan captured by IJN in 1895.
The armored cruiser Azuma
The pre-dreadnought battleship Mikasa, among the most powerful battleships of her time, in 1905, was one of the six battleships ordered as part of the program.
Marshal-Admiral Viscount Inoue Yoshika, 1900
The pre-dreadnought battleship Katori
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after capitulation in 1905. From left wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruiser Pallada
Holland 1-class submarine, the first Japanese navy submarine, purchased during the Russo Japanese War
The semi-dreadnought battleship Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship
The dreadnought battleship Settsu
The dreadnought battleship Kawachi
The seaplane carrier conducted the world's first sea-launched air raids in September 1914.
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal immediately after the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923
Photograph shows the super-dreadnought battleship Nagato, between ca. 1920 and ca. 1925
The super-dreadnought battleship Mutsu
The planned Tosa-class battleship Tosa being prepared for scuttling at Kure on 31 January 1925.
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk fighter to Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, 1921
, the world's first purpose built aircraft carrier, completed in 1922
IJN super-dreadnought battleships Yamashiro, Fusō, and battlecruiser Haruna, Tokyo Bay, 1930s
Type 91 Aerial Torpedo on IJN aircraft carrier Akagi flight deck.
IJN Yamato-class Battleships Yamato and Musashi moored in Truk Lagoon, in 1943
IJN Ha-101 class submarines Ha-105, Ha-106 and Ha-109 designed as transport submarines to resupply isolated island garrisons, 1945.
Aft view of the flight deck of the IJN aircraft carrier from the island, 19 October 1945
IJN Aircraft carrier Ibuki under dismantling operation at Sasebo Naval Arsenal. October 1946
Replica of the Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki
A Chinese illustration of a Red seal ship.
The sailing frigate Shōhei Maru (1854) was built from Dutch technical drawings.
The screw-driven steam corvette {{Ship|Japanese warship|Kanrin Maru||2}}, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1857
The gunboat Chiyoda, was Japan's first domestically built steam warship. It was completed in May 1866.<ref>Jentschura p. 113</ref>
The French-built ironclad warship Kōtetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern ironclad, 1869
The warship of Yamada Nagamasa (1590–1630), a merchant and soldier who traveled to Ayutthaya (Thailand)

During the last phase of the war, the Imperial Japanese Navy resorted to a series of desperate measures, including a variety of Special Attack Units which were popularly called kamikaze.

USS Randolph (CV-15) alongside a repair ship at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on March 13, 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from the kamikaze hit on March 11.

Operation Tan No. 2

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USS Randolph (CV-15) alongside a repair ship at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on March 13, 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from the kamikaze hit on March 11.

Operation Tan No. 2 (第二次丹作戰, Dainiji Tan Sakusen) was a long-range kamikaze mission directed at the main Allied naval fleet anchorage at Ulithi Atoll in the western Pacific on March 11, 1945 during the Pacific campaign of World War II.

A restored F4U-4 Corsair in Korean War-era U.S. Marine Corps markings

Vought F4U Corsair

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American fighter aircraft which saw service primarily in World War II and the Korean War.

American fighter aircraft which saw service primarily in World War II and the Korean War.

A restored F4U-4 Corsair in Korean War-era U.S. Marine Corps markings
A restored F4U-4 Corsair in Korean War-era U.S. Marine Corps markings
The XF4U-1 prototype in 1940/41, showing its more forward cockpit location
2000 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-8 in a Goodyear FG-1 Corsair
Landing gear on an F4U-4 Corsair.
An early F4U-1 showing the "birdcage" canopy with rearwards production cockpit location.
Vought F4U-1A Corsair, BuNo 17883, of Gregory "Pappy" Boyington, the commander of VMF-214, Vella Lavella end of 1943
Early F4U-1s of VF-17
A Corsair fires its rockets at a Japanese stronghold on Okinawa
FAA Corsair Is at NAS Quonset Point, 1943.
1831 NAS Corsair aboard, off Rabaul, 1945, with added "bars" based on their 28 June 1943 adoption by the U.S. Navy
RNZAF Corsairs with a Royal Australian Air Force CAC Boomerang on Bougainville, 1945.
A United States Navy F4U-5NL Corsair equipped with the air intercept radar (right wing) and a 154-gallon drop tank in the Geneseo Airshow, on 9 July 2006
Early F4U-7 Corsair in flight in black and white with the former flashes of the French Naval Aviation
Former Argentine F4U-5NL in Aeronavale 14.F flotilla colors in 2006
Lynn Garrison in F4U-7 133693 – N693M leads Corsair IIs of VA-147, over NAS Lemoore, California, 7 July 1967 prior to first deployment to Vietnam on USS Ranger. The A-7A "NE-300" is the aircraft of the Air Group Commander (CAG) of Attack Carrier Air Wing 2 (CVW-2)
Corsair on display at the National Air and Space Museum, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
Underside of a Corsair
An early F4U-1 in flight.
A F3A-1 in a dive
A Goodyear-built FG-1D, with the later single-piece "blown" canopy used by the F4U-1D.
F4U-2s aboard USS Intrepid (CV-11). The radome on the right outer wing is just visible.
An XF4U-3 in 1946.
An F4U-4 of VF-1b on board USS Midway, 1947–1948.
A VMF(N)-513 F4U-5N at Wonsan during the Korean War, 1950.
A factory-fresh AU-1, 1952.
Argentine F9F Cougar and F4U Corsairs, 1960s
Corsair FG-1D (Goodyear built F4U-1D) in the Royal New Zealand Air Force markings
FAH-609
AU-1 Corsair Standard Aircraft Characteristics

The increasing need for fighter protection against kamikaze attacks resulted in more Corsair units being moved to carriers.

Former radar station at Point Lay, Alaska.

Radar picket

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Radar-equipped station, ship, submarine, aircraft, or vehicle used to increase the radar detection range around a nation or military force to protect it from surprise attack, typically air attack, or from criminal activities such as smuggling.

Radar-equipped station, ship, submarine, aircraft, or vehicle used to increase the radar detection range around a nation or military force to protect it from surprise attack, typically air attack, or from criminal activities such as smuggling.

Former radar station at Point Lay, Alaska.
USS Triton (SSRN-586)
Grumman E-1 Tracer
USS Goodrich (DDR-831) underway in 1950s radar picket configuration.
A rough map of the three warning lines. From north to south: the DEW Line, Mid-Canada Line, and Pinetree Line. Off the coasts are the aircraft and ships representing the ocean barrier lines, and a 'Texas Tower'.
USS Northampton (CLC-1)
An Atlantic barrier Lockheed WV-2 Warning Star and the radar picket destroyer escort USS Sellstrom (DER-255) off Newfoundland in 1957.
USS Tracer (AGR-15), an ocean radar picket ship
USS Tigrone (SSR-419) in radar picket configuration.
Grumman TBM-3W Avenger
Sikorsky HR2S-1W early warning helicopter
Goodyear ZPG-3W
, a, after Aircraft Direction Conversion.
, a, in 1972.
Tuplolev Tu-126
A Royal Air Force E-3 Sentry over North Yorkshire.
Tethered Aerostat Radar System

The number of radar pickets was increased significantly after the first major employment of kamikaze aircraft by the Japanese in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944.

Bunker Hill under attack, 19 June 1944

USS Bunker Hill (CV-17)

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One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy.

One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy.

Bunker Hill under attack, 19 June 1944
Ens. Kiyoshi Ogawa, pilot of the second kamikaze
Second kamikaze strike amidships at the island, 30 seconds after the first strike aft
Bunker Hill as a stationary electronics test platform, 1967
Bunker Hill being scrapped, 1973
Bunker Hill underway at sea in 1943
Bunker Hill burning after Kamikaze strikes, 11 May 1945
Smoke fills the sky as the fire rages on Bunker Hill on 11 May 1945
Burning Bunker Hill with Pasadena giving assistance on 11 May 1945
Bunker Hill moored at San Diego, California in 1970
Bunker Hill arrives at Tacoma in April 1973

While covering the invasion of Okinawa, Bunker Hill was struck by two kamikazes in quick succession, setting the vessel on fire.

A sketch of a Fukuryu suit by United States Navy personnel (1946)

Fukuryu

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Fukuryu (伏龍) were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units prepared to resist the invasion of the Home islands by Allied forces.

Fukuryu (伏龍) were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units prepared to resist the invasion of the Home islands by Allied forces.

A sketch of a Fukuryu suit by United States Navy personnel (1946)

The name literally means "crouching dragon," and has also been called "suicide divers" or "kamikaze frogmen" in English texts.

Randolph alongside the repair ship USS Jason (AR-8) at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on 13 March 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from a kamikaze hit on 11 March. Photographed from a USS Miami (CL-89) floatplane

USS Randolph (CV-15)

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One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy.

One of 24 s built during World War II for the United States Navy.

Randolph alongside the repair ship USS Jason (AR-8) at Ulithi Atoll in the Caroline Islands on 13 March 1945, showing damage to her after flight deck resulting from a kamikaze hit on 11 March. Photographed from a USS Miami (CL-89) floatplane
Randolph at anchor in the Western Pacific in June 1945
Randolph after her SCB-27A modernization
HSS-1 Seabat of HS-9 lands on Randolph in July 1959
Medical debriefing aboard Randolph of Mercury Astronaut John Glenn (center), after the orbital flight of Friendship 7 on 20 February 1962
Randolph in port, 1945
Band playing in the hangar of Randolph in 1945
F4U-4 of VBF-82 on Randolph in 1946
Track meet in Boston aboard Randolph in 1947
Randolph underway in 1954.jpg
SSM-N-8 Regulus is launched from Randolph in early 1956
Starboard elevator of Randolph, 1958
Randolph underway in 1963
Randolph underway in 1967

Riding at anchor at Ulithi on 11 March, a Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" kamikaze hit Randolph on the starboard side aft just below the flight deck, killing 27 men, including four reported missing and five transferred to the hospital ship USS Relief (AH-1) where they later died, and wounding 105, during Operation Tan No. 2.