A report on Kanchipuram

Sculptures inside Kanchipuram Kailasanathar Temple – the oldest existing temple in the city
The Battle of Pollilur, fought near Kanchipuram in 1780
Kanchipuram Loksabha constituency
A house depicting old living style of Kanchipuram
Silk Saree Weaving at Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram Silk Sarees hanging
Agriculture in Kanchipuram
Bodhidharma is believed to have spread Zen school of Buddhism from India to China
Trilokyanatha Temple
Painted ceiling with Jain munis
Ekambareswarar temple – the largest temple in the city
Sculpted pillars and stone chain in Varadharaja Perumal Temple

City in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in the Tondaimandalam region, 72 km from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu.

- Kanchipuram

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Tamil Nadu

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Tamil Nadu (, abbr.

Tamil Nadu (, abbr.

Keeladi, a Sangam Era Excavation Site, Sangam period
The Chola Empire at its greatest extent, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I in 1030
Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal at Madurai
Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish
Thiruvilliputhur Andal Temple Gopuram has been adopted as the official Seal of Tamil Nadu.
Topographic map of Tamil Nadu
Western Ghats traverse along the western border of Tamil Nadu
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve has the largest elephant population in India.
Madras High Court, Chennai
Districts of Tamil Nadu
Fort St. George hosts the Chief Secretariat of the government of Tamil Nadu.
Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni is a popular Christian pilgrimage site.
Asia's first Genderqueer Pride parade in Madurai with Anjali Gopalan and Gopi Shankar Madurai (2012)
Children in an elementary school in Mayiladuthurai
Agricultural farm in Nagapattinam
Agriculture forms a major portion of the state's economy.
Kanchipuram hand loom silk sarees
TIDEL Park Coimbatore; Coimbatore is one of the leading IT/ITS centers in India.
A view of the NH 544 expressway between Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu
Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Ramachandran Central Railway Station, one of India's major railway stations
Chennai International Airport, one of India's major international airports.
V.O. Chidambaranar Port Authority in Thoothukudi, one of India's major seaports
Wind farm in Muppandal and Aralvaimozhi region near Nagercoil
Kamuthi Solar Power Project
Seventh century paintings in the Sittanavasal Cave, Pudukottai
Jallikattu – A traditional sport conducted as a part of Pongal celebrations
Man riding an elephant in a Pongal Festival Parade in Namakkal
M. S. Subbulakshmi was the first musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.
M. G. Ramachandran, was the first actor turned chief minister in India. He has been awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.
Nilgiri Mountain Railway has been described as an essential experience of the Western Ghats.
Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in Thanjavur district by Karikala Chola around the 2nd century CE<ref>{{cite news |title=Flowing waters for fertile fields |url=http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/kids/article2408778.ece |newspaper=The Hindu |date=29 August 2011 |location=India |first=M. |last=Balaganessin |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120717220026/http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/kids/article2408778.ece |archive-date=17 July 2012 |url-status=dead}}</ref><ref name="kallanai_googlebook">{{cite book |last=Singh |first=Vijay P. |author2=Ram Narayan Yadava |title=Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment |publisher=Allied Publishers |year=2003 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Bge-0XX6ip8C&q=kallanai&pg=PA508 |isbn=978-81-7764-548-4 |page=508}}</ref><ref name="kallanai_oldest">{{cite web |url=http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/traditionwater.pdf |title=This is the oldest stone water-diversion or water-regulator structure in the world |access-date=27 May 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070206130842/http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/traditionwater.pdf |archive-date=6 February 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021884/Cauvery-River |title=Cauvery River – Britannica Online Encyclopedia |encyclopedia=Britannica.com |access-date=23 September 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080726171728/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021884/Cauvery-River |archive-date=26 July 2008 |url-status=live}}</ref>
Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram during the 8th century, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Vettuvan Koil, the unfinished temple is believed to have been built during the 8th century by Pandyas in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district.
The granite gopuram (tower) of Brihadisvara Temple, 1010 CE
Airavatesvara Temple built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE
The pyramidal structure above the sanctum at Brihadisvara Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Brihadisvara Temple Entrance Gopurams at Thanjavur
Ravichandran Ashwin – Cricket
Dinesh Karthik – Cricket
Adam Sinclair – Field hockey
Viswanathan Anand – Chess
P. V. Nandhidhaa – Chess Woman Grandmaster
Ramkumar Ramanathan – Tennis
Raj Bharath – Motorsport
Mariyappan Thangavelu (left most) – High jump
Mahesh Bhupathi – Tennis
alt=Ajay Jayram|Ajay Jayaram – Badminton
alt=Sharath Kamal|Sharath Kamal (left) – Table tennis
alt=Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal|Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal – Squash

The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital.

Clive House at Fort St. George, Madras said to be the first English settlement in India during 1609

Chennai

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Capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Clive House at Fort St. George, Madras said to be the first English settlement in India during 1609
Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Viceroy of Portuguese India, established the first European settlement in Chennai with the construction of the port of São Tomé de Meliapor in 1522.
Surrender of the City of Madras in 1746 to de La Bourdonnais, by Jacques François Joseph Swebach
An 18th-century portrait depicting Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India and the foundation stone of Chennai
St.Thomas Mount, Chennai
Map of Madras, ca 1914
Cooum River near its mouth in Chennai city
Satellite image of Chennai
Chitlapakkam lake in the southern part of the city
Divisions of Chennai district.
The Ripon Building, commissioned in 1913, houses the Greater Chennai Corporation
Madras High Court
A police patrol car
Tamil Nadu legislative assembly
Triumph of Labour
Parry's Corner, one of the oldest business areas of Chennai, lined up with Art Deco buildings.
Southern Railway Headquarters, one of the fine examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture in the city
Kapaleeshwarar Temple, a Hindu shrine in the neighborhood of Mylapore.
Santhome Basilica, a Christian cathedral in Mylapore as well.
Triplicane Big Mosque, a prominent mosque in Chennai.
National Art Gallery (Chennai)
MGR Memorial at Marina beach, Chennai
Corporate headquarters of the $10 billion Murugappa Group in Chennai
India Land Tech Park, Ambattur
Infosys at Mahindra World City, Chennai
Ashok Leyland Corporate Headquarters in Guindy, Chennai.
TATA Consultancy Services, Chennai
Cognizant's Delivery Center in Chennai
Zoho Headquarters in Chennai
Tidel Park
World Trade Center towers
World Bank Office in Chennai
Madras Atomic Power Station
Vallur Thermal Power Station
Government General Hospital
ITC Grand Chola Hotel, Chennai, is the largest hotel in South India.
Marina Beach is a famous landmark in the city.
Anna Centenary Library, one of the largest libraries in Asia
Headquarters of Sun Network, India's largest private TV broadcaster
Government law college, Chennai
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras is a premier engineering institute in India
College of Engineering, Guindy is the oldest engineering college in India established in 1794
University of Madras Senate House
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium multipurpose stadium
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, one of the premier cricket venues in India
Chennai Open match at the SDAT Tennis Stadium
Madras Motor Race Track circuit, in Irungattukottai
The American consulate in Chennai.

The Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I.

Pallava territories during Narasimhavarman I c. undefined 645. This includes the Chalukya territories occupied by the Pallavas.

Pallava dynasty

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South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a significant portion of the Deccan, also known as Tondaimandalam.

South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a significant portion of the Deccan, also known as Tondaimandalam.

Pallava territories during Narasimhavarman I c. undefined 645. This includes the Chalukya territories occupied by the Pallavas.
Kailasanathar Temple, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, 685–705
Coin of the Pallavas of Coromandel, king Narasimhavarman I. (630-668 AD).Obv Lion left Rev Name of Narasimhavarman with solar and lunar symbols around.
The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram built by Narasimhavarman II
Early Pallava style pillar, 7th c.
The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram constructed during the reign of Narasimhavarman I
Elephant carved out of a single-stone

Kancheepuram served as the capital of the Pallava kingdom.

Chola dynasty

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Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in world history.

Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in world history.

Map showing the greatest extent of the Chola empire c. 1030 under Rajendra Chola I: territories are shown in blue, subordinates and areas of influence are shown in pink.
South India in BC 300, showing the Chera, Pandya and Chola countries
An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the tiger emblem of the Chola and in Nagari script.
Detail of the statue of Rajaraja I at Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur.
Gopuram Corner View of Thanjavur Brihadisvara Temple.
The sikhara of Brihadisvara Temple, a cupolic dome (25 tons), is octagonal and rests on a single block of granite, weighing 80 tons.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kadaram (Kedah).
Reconstruction of the hull of a Chola ship (200—848 CE), built by the ASI and based upon a wreck discovered 19 miles off the coast of Poombuhar. Model currently displayed in a Museum in Tirunelveli.
Airavateswara temple, Darasuram in Thanjavur District.
Later Chola Kingdom under Kulothunga Chola I (1070–1120 C.E)
Portrait of Rajaraja I and his guru Karuvurar at Brihadeeswarar Temple.
The mandalams of the Chola Empire, early 12th century CE
Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple.
With heavily ornamented pillars accurate in detail and richly sculpted walls, the Airavateswara temple at Darasuram is a classic example of Chola art and architecture.
Chola bronze from the Ulster Museum
Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
Standing Hanuman, Chola Dynasty, 11th century.

The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, who spent several months in Kanchipuram during 639–640 writes about the "kingdom of Culi-ya", in an apparent reference to these Telugu Cholas.

Extent of Vijayanagara Empire, 1446, 1520 CE

Vijayanagara Empire

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Based in the Deccan Plateau region of South India.

Based in the Deccan Plateau region of South India.

Extent of Vijayanagara Empire, 1446, 1520 CE
Panorama of the Battle of Talikota (1565). In the right panel, Husain Shah (riding a horse) orders the decapitation of Ramaraya (reigned 1542-65), the defeated ruler of Vijaianagara. Ta'rif-i Husain Shahi (Chronicle of Husain Shah).
Kannada inscription of King Krishnadeva Raya, dated 1509, at the Virupaksha temple in Hampi, describing his coronation and the construction of the large open mantapa
Medieval City of Vijayanagara, a reconstructed ancient market place and plantation at the royal center Hampi
Gajashaala or elephant's stable, built by the Vijayanagar rulers for their war elephants
Horizontal friezes in relief on the outer wall enclosure of Hazara Rama temple, depicting life in the empire
Nāga, snake worship in Hampi
Painted ceiling from the Virupaksha temple depicting Hindu mythology, 14th century
Virupaksha Temple, Hampi
Ugra Narasimha monolith at Hampi
Ornate pillars, Virupaksha temple Hampi
Wall panel relief in Hazare Rama Temple at Hampi
Poetic inscription in Kannada by Vijayanagara poet Manjaraja (c.1398)
Temple car at the Vittala temple in Hampi
Aerial view of the Meenakshi Temple, Madurai. The temple was rebuilt by the Nayaks rulers under the Vijayanagar Empire

The Gajapati king removed the Vijayanagara control over the Tamil country by occupying the Reddi kingdoms of Rajahmundry, Kondaveedu, Kanchipuram, and Tiruchirapalli.

Extent of Badami Chalukya Empire, 636 CE, 740 CE.

Chalukya dynasty

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Classical Indian dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

Classical Indian dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

Extent of Badami Chalukya Empire, 636 CE, 740 CE.
Old Kannada inscription of Chalukya King Mangalesha dated 578 CE at Badami cave temple no.3
Old Kannada inscription on victory pillar, Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, 733–745 CE
Coinage of the Chalukyas of Badami. Uncertain ruler. Circa 597-757 CE. Boar and Temple type.
Bhutanatha temple complex, at Badami
Virupaksha temple in Dravidian style at Pattadakal, built 740 CE
Poetry on stone at the Meguti temple (Aihole inscription) dated 634 CE, in Sanskrit language and old Kannada script, with a Kannada language endorsement of about the same date at the bottom.
Vaishnava Cave temple No. 3 at Badami, 578 CE
Bahubali at Jain Cave temple No. 4 at Badami, 6th century
Vishnu image in Cave temple No. 3
Bhutanatha group of temples facing the Badami tank
The Parvati Temple, located about 140 km southeast to the Badami
Aihole – Durga Temple Front View
Aihole – Meguti Jain Temple
Mallikarjuna temple in dravidian style and Kashi Vishwanatha temple in nagara style at Pattadakal, built 740 CE
Dancing Shiva in cave no. 1 in Badami
Papanatha temple at Pattadakal – fusion of southern and northern Indian styles, 680 CE

Among them, the Badami cave inscriptions of Mangalesha (578), Kappe Arabhatta record of c. 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakeshin II, the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple inscription and Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple inscription of Vikramaditya II (all in Kannada language) provide more evidence of the Chalukya language.

Srirangam Temple

Sri Vaishnavism

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Denomination within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism.

Denomination within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism.

Srirangam Temple
, the originator of the Sri Sampradaya
Ramanujacharya embracing an icon of Lord Varadaraja (Vishnu)
Thenkalai Sri Vaishnava urdhva pundram
Sri Kanchi Prativadibhayankar Jagadguru Anantacharya Gaddi Swamiji, the spiritual preceptor of Tridandi Swami Vishwaksenacharyaji
Vadagalai Sri Vaishnava Urdhva Pundram
Parakala Mutt painting of Vedanta Desikan with Brahmatantra Swatantra Jeeyar
Sri Balmukundacharyaji Maharaj of Jhalariya Mutt, Didwana, Rajasthan

This theological dispute between the Vedic and Bhakti traditions traces it roots to the debate between Srirangam and Kanchipuram monasteries between the 13th and 15th century.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Sanskrit

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Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

The cities of Varanasi, Paithan, Pune and Kanchipuram were centers of classical Sanskrit learning and public debates until the arrival of the colonial era.

Approximate extent of the Gupta territories (pink) in 375 CE

Gupta Empire

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Ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE.

Ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE.

Approximate extent of the Gupta territories (pink) in 375 CE
Gupta script inscription Maharaja Sri Gupta Gupta allahabad m.svg Gupta allahabad haa.jpg Gupta allahabad raa.jpg Gupta allahabad j.svg Gupta allahabad shrii.jpg Gupta allahabad gu.jpg allahabad pt.jpg ("Great King, Lord Gupta"), mentioning the first ruler of the dynasty, king Gupta. Inscription by Samudragupta on the Allahabad pillar, where Samudragupta presents king Gupta as his great-grandfather. Dated circa 350 CE.
Approximate extent of the Gupta territories (pink) in 375 CE
Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a gold coin.
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Standing Buddha in red sandstone, Art of Mathura, Gupta period circa 5th century CE. Mathura Museum.
Gold coins of Chandragupta II.
Sculpture of Vishnu (red sandstone), 5th century CE.
Jain tirthankara relief Parshvanatha on Kahaum pillar erected by Skandagupta
An 8 gm gold coin featuring Chandragupta II astride a caparisoned horse with a bow in his left hand.
Dharmachakra Pravartana Buddha at Sarnath from the Gupta era, 5th century CE.
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Dashavatara Temple is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the Gupta period.
Vishnu reclining on the serpent Shesha (Ananta), Dashavatara Temple 5th century
Buddha from Sarnath, 5–6th century CE
The Colossal trimurti at the Elephanta Caves
Painting of Padmapani Cave 1 at Ajanta
The Shiva mukhalinga (faced-lingam) from the Bhumara Temple
Nalrajar Garh fortification wall in Chilapata Forests, West Bengal, is one of the last surviving fortification remains from the Gupta period ,currently 5–7 m high
Nalanda university was first established under Gupta empire
Bitargaon temple from the Gupta period provide one of the earliest examples of pointed arches anywhere in the world
Ajanta caves from Gupta era
Krishna fighting the horse demon Keshi, 5th century
Pataini temple is a Jain temple built during the Gupta period.

The inscription suggests that Samudragupta advanced as far as the Pallava kingdom in the south, and defeated Vishnugopa, the Pallava regent of Kanchi.

Vaishnavism

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One of the major Hindu denominations along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

One of the major Hindu denominations along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

Vāsudeva on a coin of Agathocles of Bactria, circa 190–180 BCE. This is "the earliest unambiguous image" of the deity.
The inscription of the Heliodorus pillar that was made by Indo-Greek envoy Heliodorus in 110 BCE, in what is modern Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh). The inscription states Heliodorus is a Bhagavata devoted to the "God of gods" Vāsudeva.
Vishnu in three incarnations (Vaikuntha Chaturmurti): Vishnu himself or Krishna in human form, Varaha as a boar, Narasimha as a lion. Gupta art, Mathura, mid-5th century CE. Boston Museum.
Krishna with Gopis, painted c. 1660.
Relationship between different forms of Krishna as Paripurna avatara of Vishnu and as Svayam Bhagavan in Chaitanya school of Vaishnavism.
Radha Krishna at Kirti temple
The Krishna stories have inspired numerous dramatic and dance arts in Indian culture.
Jiva Gosvami's Bhajan Kutir at Radha-kunda. Jiva Goswamis Sandarbhas summarize Vedic sources of Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition's accretion of the concept Krishna to be the supreme Lord.
Nammalvar
A 6th century sculpture of Narasimha at the Badami cave temple, constructed by the Chalukyas

Important sites of pilgrimage for Vaishnavas include Guruvayur Temple, Srirangam, Kanchipuram, Vrindavan, Mathura, Ayodhya, Tirupati, Pandharpur (Vitthal), Puri (Jaggannath), Nira Narsingpur (Narasimha), Mayapur, Nathdwara, Dwarka, Udipi (Karnataka), Shree Govindajee Temple (Imphal), Govind Dev Ji Temple (Jaipur) and Muktinath.