Kanva dynasty

Kanvayana shown with other petty kingdoms of that time, along with the large kingdoms of the Satavahanas & Indo-Scythians.

The Kanva dynasty or Kanvayana that overthrew the Shunga dynasty in parts of eastern and central India, and ruled from 73 BCE to 28 BCE.

- Kanva dynasty

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Satavahana dynasty

Ancient South Asian dynasty based in Deccan.

Early Satavahana coinage, Satakarni issue, Maharashtra – Vidarbha type, 1st century BCE.
Early sculpture from Pauni, ancient Vidarbha, where coins of Satakarni were also found. Pillar with Naga Mucalinda protecting the throne of the Buddha at Pauni (Bhandara District). 2nd-1st century BCE. National Museum of India.
Cave No.19
Naneghat inscription. Dated to 70-60 BCE, in the reign of Satakarni I.
A coin of Nahapana restruck by the Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni. Nahapana's profile and coin legend are still clearly visible.
The defeated "Saka-Yavana-Palhava" (Brahmi script: mentioned in the Nasik cave 3 inscription of Queen Gotami Balasiri (end of line 5 of the inscription).
Coin of Vashishtiputra Satakarni.
Coin of Yajna Sri Satakarni, British Museum.
Ashoka with his Queens, at Sannati (Kanaganahalli Stupa), 1st-3rd century CE. The inscription "Rāya Asoko" (, "King Ashoka") in Brahmi script is carved on the relief.
Indian ship on lead coin of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi, testimony to the naval, seafaring and trading capabilities of the Satavahanas during the 1st–2nd century CE.
The Pompeii Lakshmi ivory statuette was found in the ruin of Pompeii (destroyed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE). It is thought to have come from Bhokardan in the Satavahana realm in the first half of the 1st century CE. It testifies to Indo-Roman trade relations in the beginning of our era.
Inscription of Gautamiputra Satakarni, Nasik Caves No.3, Inscription No.4. Circa 150 CE.
Satavahana architecture at Cave No.3 of the Pandavleni Caves in Nashik. This cave was probably started during the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni, and was finished and dedicated to the Buddhist Samgha during the reign of his son Vasishthiputra Pulumavi, circa 150 CE.
Royal earrings, Andhra Pradesh, 1st century BCE.
Architrave
Architrave
Yakshini.
Pillar capital.
Lion pillar capital.
The Miracle of Walking in the air at Savrasti.
Pipal tree.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairanjana
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha.
Foreigners making a dedication to the Great Stupa at Sanchi.
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu.
Satavahana 1st century BCE coin inscribed in Brahmi: "(Sataka)Nisa". British Museum
Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni ({{reign|167|196 CE}}).
Amaravati Marbles, fragments of Buddhist stupa
Fragment of Amaravati stupa
Mara's assault on the Buddha, 2nd century, Amaravati
Scroll supported by Indian Yaksha, Amaravati, 2nd–3rd century CE.

The origin of the dynasty is uncertain, but according to the Puranas, their first king overthrew the Kanva dynasty.

Shunga Empire

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.
Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal 1st century BCE.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
The Great Stupa under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Extent of the Shunga Empire
Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura Museum.
The Heliodorus pillar was built in Vidisha under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.
The Sunga territory circa 100 BCE, greatly reduced to the region of Magadha only, with many independent, petty kingdoms such as such as Mathura and Panchala
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Elephant and Riders.
Balustrade post with Lakshmi.
Balustrade post with Yaksha.
Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.
Personage.
Lotus.
Floral motif.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.
Ashoka supported by his two wives. Similar to [[:File:Sanchi King Ashoka with his Queens, South Gate, Stupa no. 1.jpg|the later relief at Gateway 1]].
Relic boxes found inside the stupa.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p.82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.
Chandraketugarth.
Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga mother figure, with attendant. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.
Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.
Sunga Love Scene.
Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Another Shunga coin
A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain in Malwa.
Shunga coin.

The Kanva dynasty succeeded the Shungas around 73 BCE.

Vasudeva Kanva

Vasudeva Kanva (c.

Kanvayana shown with other petty kingdoms of that time, along with the large kingdoms of the Satavahanas & Indo-Scythians.

75) was the founder of the Kanva dynasty.

Devabhuti

Devabhuti ((r.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.

Following his death, the Shunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas.

26 BC

Either a common year starting on Tuesday or Wednesday or a leap year starting on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Monday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.

The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar

The Andhra dynasty replaces the Kanva dynasty, and rules over the eastern part of India.

List of state leaders in the 1st century BC

List of state leaders in the 1st century BC .

The ruins of Cyrene

Kanva dynasty (complete list) –

Vikramaditya

Legendary king who has been featured in hundreds of traditional stories including those in Baital Pachisi and Singhasan Battisi.

A modern depiction of Vikramaditya in Ujjain
Chandragupta II on a coin
Contemporary artist's impression of a vetala hanging from a tree, with Vikramaditya in the background
Kalpasutra and Kalakacharya Katha manuscript

There is little possibility of an historically-unattested, powerful emperor ruling from Ujjain around the first century BCE among the Shungas (187–78 BCE), the Kanvas (75–30), the Satavahanas (230 BCE–220 CE), the Shakas (c.

Middle kingdoms of India

The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from 200 BCE to 1200 CE.

Silver coin of the founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Demetrius (r. c. 205–171 BC).
Billon drachma of the Huna King Napki Malka (Afghanistan or Gandhara, c. 475–576).
Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414–455).
The rock-cut Buddhist viharas and chaityas of Ajanta Caves, built under the patronage of the Vakataka rulers.
Statue of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at Ajmer
Modhera Sun Temple built by the Chaulukyas.
Rohtasgarh Fort
Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire
Konark Sun Temple at Konark, Odisha, built by King Narasimhadeva I (1236–1264 AD) also a World Heritage Site.
9th-10th century lion sculpture representing powerful Kamarupa-Palas, Madan Kamdev
Kadamba tower at Doddagaddavalli
Statue of Bahubali as Gommateshvara built by the Western Ganga is one of the largest monolithic statues in the world.
Badami Cave Temples No 3. (Vishnu)
Shore Temple in Mamallapuram built by the Pallavas. (c. eighth century CE)
Rashtrakuta Empire in 800 CE, 915 CE.
Kailash Temple in Ellora Caves
Gadag style pillars, Western Chalukya art.
Sangamanatha temple at Kudalasangama, North Karnataka
Shilabalika, Chennakeshava temple, Belur.
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 CE

The Sātavāhanas had to compete with the Shunga Empire and then the Kanva dynastys of Magadha to establish their rule.

History of South India

The history of southern India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires.

Location of South India
Pre-historic sites of Mid Krishna-Tungabhadra Valley in southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh
Ancient Silk Road map. The Spice trade was mainly along the water routes (blue).
South India in 300 BCE, showing the Chera, Pandya, and Chola tribes.
Stone sculpture, Srivaikuntanathan Permual temple, Srivaikuntam, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu
Grey pottery with engravings, Arikamedu
The Chola Empire at its greatest extent, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I in 1030 CE
Section of Tabula Peutingeriana, the Roman map from 300 CE, depicting South Indian peninsula and Sri Lanka (Insula Taprobane)
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)
The Peruvudaiyaar temple at Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu is one of the largest monolithic temple complexes in the world – a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Chola Fresco of Dancing girls. Peruvudaiyaar Temple c. 1100 C.E., Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
Detail of the statue of Rajaraja Chola at Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu.
The Shore Temple in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. built by the Pallavas – a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Panchakuta Basadi, 9th century, Jain, Kambadahalli, Mandya District, Karnataka.
Badami Chalukya Architecture, Virupaksha Temple, Badami, Karnataka.
Rashtrakuta architecture, Kailasanatha Temple, in Ellora Caves, Maharashtra.
Quilon Syrian copper plates granted to Saint Thomas Christians testify the role of merchant guilds and trade corporations in Early Medieval Kerala. The sixth plate also contains a number of signatures of the witnesses to the grant in Arabic (Kufic script), Middle Persian (cursive Pahlavi script) and Judeo-Persian (standard square Hebrew script).
Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district, 1112 CE, an example of dravida articulation with a nagara superstructure
Keshava temple, Somanathapura, Karnataka.
Ramappa temple in Warangal
Ezhimala, the early headquarters of the Mushika dynasty of North Malabar
A portrait of Kannur, the largest city of North Malabar, drawn in 1572, from Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates orbis terrarum, Volume I
Kannur fort and Bay; a watercolor by John Johnston (1795–1801)
Vijayanagara architecture, Stone chariot in Vittala temple, Hampi, Karnataka
Map of South India in the 15th century
Chalukya influence in pillar design, and Dravida Vimana, at Krishna temple in Hampi
Kalyanamantapa in Cheluva Narayanaswamy temple in Melkote
Virupaksha temple, Hampi
Krishna Deva Raya
Uru, a type of ship that was historically used for maritime trade, built at Beypore, Kozhikode
A political map of India in 1320 CE. Note that most of the present-day state of Kerala had been under the sovereignty of the Zamorin of Calicut.
A panorama of port Kozhikode, shows several types of ships, shipbuilding, net fishing, dinghy traffic and a rugged, sparsely populated interior (Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates orbis terrarum, 1572)
Kollam, the capital of Venad, in 1700s
Sree Padmanabha Swamy at Thiruvananthapuram was the largest temple in Venad, which was eventually expanded into the Malayalam kingdom of Travancore in modern period.
Vasco da Gama landing near Kozhikode in Kerala
The path Vasco da Gama took to reach Kozhikode (black line)
The Mattancherry Palace at Kochi was built and gifted by the Portuguese as a present to the Kingdom of Cochin around 1545
Aghoreshwara temple, mantapa in Keladi Nayaka art Shimoga District, Karnataka.
Mysore Palace in Mysore, Karnataka.
South India in 1800

They had to compete with the Shungas and then the Kanvas of Magadha to establish their rule.

History of Bengal

Intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Remnants of the city wall in Mahasthangarh, one of the oldest urban settlements in Bengal
Vedic Period Kingdoms in Bengal
Bengal and kingdoms in c.500 BCE
A map showing some of the ancient geopolitical divisions in Bengal
Bengal under Magadha dynesties
A sculpture of ancient Bengal found in Chandraketugarh
The ruins of the Somapura Mahavihara, once the largest monastery in the Indian subcontinent and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The archaeological site of Mainamati was a religious center used by the Chandra dynasty
A sculpture of the Hindu deity Vishnu from the Sena period
Bengal Sultanate and the neighbouring kingdoms (1525 CE).
A Hindu revival movement led by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu emerged during the Hussain Shahi dynasty
A Mughal miniature showing emperor Akbar rejoicing upon the Mughal conquest of Bengal
A woman in Dhaka clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century
European ships in Chittagong, 1702
Flag of the Dutch East India Company
Robert Clive conferring with Mir Jafar, the Bengali traitor who betrayed the last independent Nawab
The Victoria Memorial flanked by St. Paul's Cathedral in Kolkata, India. The city was the former British capital of India
At its greatest extent, the Bengal Presidency covered north and north-east India, as well as Burma, Singapore and Penang
Rabindranath Tagore's influence on Bengali and Indian literature has been compared to Shakespeare's influence in the English-speaking world. Tagore was the first Asian Nobel laureate in 1913
The All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Dacca, 1906
Subhash Chandra Bose
The Prime Ministers of Bengal
The Adina Mosque was India's largest mosque
Ruins of the prayer hall
The Sultan's upper floor gallery
Central mihrab
Exterior design
Front of the temple
Terracotta river scene
Terracotta horseman
Temple pillar

Ancient Bengal was often ruled by dynasties based in the Magadha region, such as the Shunga dynasty and Kanva dynasty.