Kapp Putsch

Kapp-Lüttwitz PutschKapp-Lüttwitz-Putschabortive Kapp PutschKapp military PutschLüttwitz-Kapp PutschMarch 1920putsch
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.wikipedia
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Walther von Lüttwitz

Walther Freiherr von Lüttwitz
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
Lüttwitz is best known for being the driving force behind the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch of 1920 which attempted to replace the democratic government of the Weimar Republic with a military dictatorship.

Wolfgang Kapp

KappKAPP, Wolfgang
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
He was a strict nationalist, and a failed leader of the so-called Kapp Putsch.

Coup d'état

coupcoup d'etatmilitary coup
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
Since an unsuccessful coup d'état in 1920 (the Kapp Putsch), the Swiss-German word Putsch (pronounced, coined for the Züriputsch of 6 September 1839, in Zurich), also denotes the politico-military actions of an unsuccessful minority reactionary coup.

Weimar Republic

GermanyWeimarWeimar Germany
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place. After Germany had lost World War I (1914–1918), the German Revolution of 1918–1919 ended the monarchy and the German Empire was abolished and a democratic system, the Weimar Republic, was established in 1919 by the Weimar National Assembly.
During the Kapp Putsch for example, the army refused to fire upon the rebels.

Friedrich Ebert

EbertFriedrich-EbertPresident Friedrich Ebert
President Friedrich Ebert, Chancellor Gustav Bauer and Defence Minister Gustav Noske were all members of the SPD.
With their help, Ebert's government crushed a number of socialist and communist uprisings as well as those from the right, including the Kapp Putsch.

Walther Reinhardt

The most senior officer of the land forces was called Chef der Heeresleitung, a post held in early 1920 by General Walther Reinhardt.
During the Kapp Putsch of 1920, Reinhardt remained loyal to the elected government and was one of the few senior officers of the Reichswehr willing to order troops to fire at the revolting units.

Erich Ludendorff

LudendorffGeneral LudendorffGeneral Erich Ludendorff
These included German National People's Party (DNVP) member Wolfgang Kapp, retired general Erich Ludendorff and Waldemar Pabst, who had been behind the murder of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in January 1919 and, the last Berlin head of police in the old Reich.
He took part in the failed Kapp Putsch (coup d’état) with Wolfgang Kapp in 1920 and the Beer Hall Putsch of Adolf Hitler in 1923, and in 1925, he ran unsuccessfully for the office of President of Germany against his former superior Hindenburg.

Reichswehr

German Armyarmy100,000-man army
It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and other conservative, nationalist and monarchist factions. In early 1919, the strength of the Reichswehr, the regular German army, was estimated at 350,000, with more than 250,000 men enlisted in the various Freikorps ("free corps"), volunteer paramilitary units, largely consisting of returning soldiers from the war.
After the Kapp Putsch, Hans von Seeckt took over this post.

German National People's Party

DNVPDeutschnationale VolksparteiNational People's Party
These included German National People's Party (DNVP) member Wolfgang Kapp, retired general Erich Ludendorff and Waldemar Pabst, who had been behind the murder of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in January 1919 and, the last Berlin head of police in the old Reich.
In the run-up to the Kapp Putsch of March 1920, the DNVP leaders were informed by Wolfgang Kapp in February 1920 that a putsch to overthrow the government would soon occur, and asked for their support.

German Revolution of 1918–19

German RevolutionNovember Revolutionrevolution
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place. After Germany had lost World War I (1914–1918), the German Revolution of 1918–1919 ended the monarchy and the German Empire was abolished and a democratic system, the Weimar Republic, was established in 1919 by the Weimar National Assembly.
The popularity of the USPD temporarily rose one more time after the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch in 1920, but the party dissolved in 1922.

General strike

strikegeneral strikesstrikes
The coup failed after a few days, when large sections of the German population followed a call by the government to join a general strike.
1920: General strike in Germany to stop Kapp Putsch.

Freikorps

Free Corpsdeath squadFrei-Corps
In early 1919, the strength of the Reichswehr, the regular German army, was estimated at 350,000, with more than 250,000 men enlisted in the various Freikorps ("free corps"), volunteer paramilitary units, largely consisting of returning soldiers from the war.
Though officially disbanded in 1920, some of them continued to exist for several years and many Freikorps' attempted, unsuccessfully, to overthrow the government in the Kapp Putsch in March 1920.

President of Germany (1919–1945)

PresidentPresident of GermanyReichspräsident
President Friedrich Ebert, Chancellor Gustav Bauer and Defence Minister Gustav Noske were all members of the SPD.
While in office he used emergency decrees on a number of occasions, including to suppress the Kapp Putsch in 1920.

Hermann Ehrhardt

EHRHARDT, HermannMarine-Brigade Ehrhardt
Its commander, Korvettenkapitän Hermann Ehrhardt, declared that the unit would refuse its dissolution.
They fought in north-west Germany, central Germany, Upper Silesia, and Bavaria and participated in the unsuccessful Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch of 1920.

Weimar National Assembly

National AssemblyNationalversammlungConstituent Assembly
After Germany had lost World War I (1914–1918), the German Revolution of 1918–1919 ended the monarchy and the German Empire was abolished and a democratic system, the Weimar Republic, was established in 1919 by the Weimar National Assembly.
13 March 1920 - the assembly left Berlin as a result of the Kapp Putsch, it returned from Stuttgart seven days later

Hans von Seeckt

von SeecktGeneral Hans von SeecktSeeckt
The regimental commanders decided not to follow orders to shoot, a decision that received the approval of Chef des Truppenamts General Hans von Seeckt.
This was most clearly illustrated by Seeckt's role during the Kapp Putsch of March 1920.

Gustav Noske

Noske
President Friedrich Ebert, Chancellor Gustav Bauer and Defence Minister Gustav Noske were all members of the SPD.
The highest ranking general of the Reichswehr, Walther von Lüttwitz, refused to comply, resulting in what became known as the Kapp Putsch.

Gustav Bauer

Bauer
President Friedrich Ebert, Chancellor Gustav Bauer and Defence Minister Gustav Noske were all members of the SPD.
In March 1920, the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch attempted to depose the government.

Waldemar Pabst

PABST, Waldemar
These included German National People's Party (DNVP) member Wolfgang Kapp, retired general Erich Ludendorff and Waldemar Pabst, who had been behind the murder of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in January 1919 and, the last Berlin head of police in the old Reich.
Pabst played a leading role in the failed Kapp Putsch and, along with Wolfgang Kapp and the Marinebrigade Ehrhardt of Hermann Ehrhardt, was named by Gustav Noske as having the main responsibility for the action, even though it actually had support from higher up in the Reichswehr.

Adolf von Trotha

Rear Admiral Adolf von Trotha
Admiral Adolf von Trotha, the navy commander, came out in support of the coup as soon as he learned of it. In Bavaria, the Reichswehr toppled the Social Democratic state government and replaced it with the right-wing regime of Gustav Ritter von Kahr.
After supporting the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch of March 1920 he resigned his post.

Bendlerblock

Bendlerstrassearmy general headquartersBendlerbrücke
Ebert then called a cabinet meeting for 4:00 am. At 1:00 am Noske asked the senior commanders to his office in the Bendlerblock.
In Minister Noske's office, Truppenamt chief Major general Hans von Seeckt openly rejected an intervention of Reichswehr troops against paramilitary Freikorps forces during the 1920 Kapp Putsch ("Reichswehr do not fire on Reichswehr").

Stuttgart

VaihingenStuttgart, GermanyStuttgart-Vaihingen
The government moved to Dresden, where they hoped to get support from Generalmajor Maercker but he had been ordered by Berlin to take them into "protective custody" and they moved on to Stuttgart.
In 1920, Stuttgart temporarily became the seat of the German National Government when the administration fled from Berlin from the Kapp Putsch.

Weimar Coalition

In 1919–20, the government of Germany was formed by the Weimar Coalition, consisting of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), German Democratic Party (DDP, left-of-centre liberals) and Zentrum (conservative Catholics).
The elections of 6 June 1920 resulted in severe decline in the Coalition's parliamentary strength, despite hopes that the dramatic failure of the right-wing Kapp Putsch would lessen the political reorientation of the Reichstag parties.

Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Gustav von KahrGeneral Von KahrStaatskommissar'' von Kahr
Admiral Adolf von Trotha, the navy commander, came out in support of the coup as soon as he learned of it. In Bavaria, the Reichswehr toppled the Social Democratic state government and replaced it with the right-wing regime of Gustav Ritter von Kahr.
He came into office under military influences as a secondary result of the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch of 13 March in Berlin.

Ruhr uprising

1920 communist uprisingcommunist rebellion in the Ruhr valleyCommunist uprising in the Ruhr
It was one of the causes of the left-wing Ruhr uprising of March 1920, which the government suppressed by military force, whilst dealing leniently with those behind the putsch.
The uprising took place initially in support of the call for a general strike issued by the Social Democrat members of the German government, the unions and other parties in response to the right-wing Kapp Putsch of 13 March 1920.