Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxistMarxianK. MarxK Marx[Karl] MarxCarlos MarxKarlKarl Heinrich Marx
Karl Marx ( 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.wikipedia
3,717 Related Articles

The Communist Manifesto

Communist ManifestoManifesto of the Communist PartyThe Manifesto of the Communist Party
His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital.
The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Friedrich Engels

EngelsFrederick EngelsFrederich Engels
Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum.
Engels developed what is now known as Marxist theory together with Karl Marx and in 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in English cities.

Socialist mode of production

socialismsocialistsocialist society
Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system known as socialism.
In Marxist theory, the socialist mode of production (also referred to as lower-stage of communism or simply socialism, as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels used the terms socialism and communism interchangeably) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that emerge from capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.

Historical materialism

materialist conception of historyhistorical materialistMarx's theory of history
Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system known as socialism.
This was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the "materialist conception of history".

Labour power

labor powerlabor-powerlabour-power
In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and the working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.
Labour power (in German: Arbeitskraft; in French: force de travail) is a key concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy.

Class consciousness

class-consciousclass conscioussocialist consciousness
For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.
According to Karl Marx, it is an awareness that is key to sparking a revolution that would "create a dictatorship of the proletariat, transforming it from a wage-earning, property-less mass into the ruling class".

Critical theory

critical theoristcriticalcritical theorists
Marx's critical theories about society, economics and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle.
Frankfurt School critical theorists drew on the critical methods of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and the working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the "capitalistic system" and to the "capitalist mode of production" in Capital (1867).

Heinrich Marx

Heinrich) MarxHeinrich
Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Heinrich Marx (1777–1838) and Henriette Pressburg (1788–1863).
Heinrich Marx (15 April 1777 – 10 May 1838) was a lawyer and the father of the socialist philosopher Karl Marx.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Karl Marx ( 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.
Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx (1818–1883) set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science.

Crisis theory

economic crisiscrisiscrisis of capitalism
For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.
John Stuart Mill in his Of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum which forms Chapter III of Book IV of his Principles of Political Economy and Chapter V, Consequences of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum, provides a conspectus of the then accepted understanding of a number of the key elements, after David Ricardo, but without Karl Marx's theoretical working out of the theory that Frederick Engels posthumously published in Capital, Volume III.

Henriette Pressburg

Henrietta, ''née'' Pressburg}HenrietteHenriette Marx
Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Heinrich Marx (1777–1838) and Henriette Pressburg (1788–1863).
Henriette Pressburg (20 September 1788 – 30 November 1863) later on marriage, Henriette Marx, was the mother of the socialist philosopher and economist Karl Marx.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Born in Trier, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at university.
19th-century philosophy (late modern philosophy) is influenced by the wider movement termed the Enlightenment, and includes figures such as Hegel a key figure in German idealism, Kierkegaard who developed the foundations for existentialism, Nietzsche a famed anti-Christian, John Stuart Mill who promoted utilitarianism, Karl Marx who developed the foundations for communism and the American William James.

British Museum Reading Room

Reading RoomRound Reading RoomBML
Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum.
The Reading Room was used by a large number of famous figures, including notably Sun Yat-sen, Karl Marx, Oscar Wilde, Friedrich Hayek, Bram Stoker, Mahatma Gandhi, Rudyard Kipling, George Orwell, George Bernard Shaw, Mark Twain, Vladimir Lenin (using the name Jacob Richter ), Virginia Woolf, Arthur Rimbaud, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, H. G. Wells and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

University of Bonn

BonnBonn UniversityRheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field.
As of August 2018, among its notable alumni, faculty and researchers are 10 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners as well as August Kekulé, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Max Ernst, Konrad Adenauer, and Joseph Schumpeter.

Free association (Marxism and anarchism)

free associationfree association of producersfree associations
For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.
For instance, Karl Marx often called it a "community of freely associated individuals".

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.
Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels.

Ludwig von Westphalen

As she had broken off her engagement with a young aristocrat to be with Marx, their relationship was socially controversial owing to the differences between their religious and class origins, but Marx befriended her father Ludwig von Westphalen (a liberal aristocrat) and later dedicated his doctoral thesis to him.
Johann Ludwig von Westphalen (11 July 1770 – 3 March 1842) was a liberal Prussian civil servant and the father-in-law of Karl Marx.

Frits Philips

Her sister Sophie Pressburg (1797–1854) married Lion Philips (1794–1866) and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips.
Their grandfather Frederik Philips was a first cousin of Karl Marx.

Emancipation

emancipatedemancipateliberation
Marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.
Among others, Karl Marx discussed political emancipation in his 1844 essay "On the Jewish Question", although often in addition to (or in contrast with) the term human emancipation.

On the Jewish Question

Zur Judenfrage
Marx contributed two essays to the paper, "Introduction to a Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right" and "On the Jewish Question", the latter introducing his belief that the proletariat were a revolutionary force and marking his embrace of communism.
"On the Jewish Question" is a work by Karl Marx, written in 1843, and first published in Paris in 1844 under the German title "Zur Judenfrage" in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher. It was one of Marx's first attempts to develop what would later be called the materialist conception of history.

Bruno Bauer

Bauer
They gathered around Ludwig Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer, with Marx developing a particularly close friendship with Adolf Rutenberg.
Bruno Bauer is also known by his association and sharp break with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and by his later association with Max Stirner and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Corps Borussia Bonn

Borussian KorpsCorps Borussia
Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's Borussian Korps.
Karl Marx fought a duel with a Borrussia Corps member in August 1836.

Scorpion and Felix

Skorpion und Felix, Humoristischer Roman
By 1837, Marx was writing both fiction and non-fiction, having completed a short novel, Scorpion and Felix, a drama, Oulanem, as well as a number of love poems dedicated to Jenny von Westphalen, though none of this early work was published during his lifetime.
Scorpion and Felix, A Humoristic Novel (Skorpion und Felix, Humoristischer Roman) is the only comedic fictional story to have been written by Karl Marx.

Mikhail Bakunin

BakuninMichael BakuninBakuninist
Although intended to attract writers from both France and the German states, the Jahrbücher was dominated by the latter and the only non-German writer was the exiled Russian anarchist collectivist Mikhail Bakunin.
Eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx.