# Karl Pearson

**PearsonPearson, KarlCarl PearsonPearson, KProfessor Karl Pearson**

Karl Pearson (born Carl Pearson; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936 ) was an English mathematician and biostatistician.wikipedia

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### Biostatistics

**biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician**

Karl Pearson (born Carl Pearson; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936 ) was an English mathematician and biostatistician.

This led to a vigorous debate between the biometricians, who supported Galton's ideas, as Walter Weldon, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire and Karl Pearson, and Mendelians, who supported Bateson's (and Mendel's) ideas, such as Charles Davenport and Wilhelm Johannsen.

### Men and Women's Club

He wrote on Passion plays, religion, Goethe, Werther, as well as sex-related themes, and was a founder of the Men and Women's Club.

The Men and Women's Club was a debating society founded by Karl Pearson to discuss relations between the sexes, such as marriage, sexuality, friendship, and prostitution.

### Egon Pearson

**PearsonEgon Sharpe PearsonPearson, Egon**

The couple had three children: Sigrid Loetitia Pearson, Helga Sharpe Pearson, and Egon Pearson, who became a statistician himself and succeeded his father as head of the Applied Statistics Department at University College.

Egon Sharpe Pearson (11 August 1895 – 12 June 1980) was one of three children and the son of Karl Pearson and, like his father, a leading British statistician.

### Isaac Todhunter

**TodhunterTodhunter, Isaac**

He edited and completed both William Kingdon Clifford's Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885) and Isaac Todhunter's History of the Theory of Elasticity, [https://books.google.com/books?id=NwI1AQAAMAAJ Vol.

### Passion Play

**passion playsretellingPassion**

He wrote on Passion plays, religion, Goethe, Werther, as well as sex-related themes, and was a founder of the Men and Women's Club.

Public interest in the Passion Play developed in the last decades of the 19th century, and the statistician Karl Pearson wrote a book about them.

### Raphael Weldon

**Walter Frank Raphael WeldonW. F. R. WeldonWalter F.R. Weldon**

1891 saw him also appointed to the professorship of Geometry at Gresham College; here he met Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, a zoologist who had some interesting problems requiring quantitative solutions.

He was the joint founding editor of Biometrika, with Francis Galton and Karl Pearson.

### Francis Galton

**Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis**

Pearson was a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.

This approach was later taken up enthusiastically by Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon; together, they founded the highly influential journal Biometrika in 1901.

### The Grammar of Science

**Grammar of Science**

When the 23-year-old Albert Einstein started the Olympia Academy study group in 1902, with his two younger friends, Maurice Solovine and Conrad Habicht, his first reading suggestion was Pearson's The Grammar of Science.

### Eugenics

**eugenicisteugeniceugenicists**

Pearson was also a proponent of social Darwinism and eugenics.

These included Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon, who worked on this at the University College London.

### Antimatter

**anti-matterantiheliumanti**

Pearson also discussed antimatter, the fourth dimension, and wrinkles in time.

Between the 1880s and the 1890s, Karl Pearson proposed the existence of "squirts" and sinks of the flow of aether.

### University College School

**University College School, LondonLondon University SchoolOld Gower**

Pearson attended University College School, followed by King's College, Cambridge in 1876 to study mathematics, graduating in 1879 as Third Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.

### University College London

**University College, LondonUCLUniversity College**

He founded the world's first university statistics department at University College, London in 1911, and contributed significantly to the field of biometrics and meteorology.

### William Kingdon Clifford

**W. K. CliffordCliffordWilliam Clifford**

He edited and completed both William Kingdon Clifford's Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885) and Isaac Todhunter's History of the Theory of Elasticity, [https://books.google.com/books?id=NwI1AQAAMAAJ Vol.

### Mathematical Tripos

**Cambridge Mathematical TriposMathematics TriposTripos**

Pearson attended University College School, followed by King's College, Cambridge in 1876 to study mathematics, graduating in 1879 as Third Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.

Karl Pearson Third Wrangler in 1879 made his career outside Cambridge.

### King's College, Cambridge

**King's CollegeKing’s College, CambridgeKing**

Pearson attended University College School, followed by King's College, Cambridge in 1876 to study mathematics, graduating in 1879 as Third Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.

In the sciences and social sciences, King's alumni include British sociologist Anthony Giddens, physicist Patrick Blackett, chemist Frederick Sanger, palaeontologist Richard Fortey, economist John Craven, political theorist John Dunn, engineer Charles Inglis, mathematician and eugenicist Karl Pearson.

### Olympia Academy

**The Olympia Academy**

When the 23-year-old Albert Einstein started the Olympia Academy study group in 1902, with his two younger friends, Maurice Solovine and Conrad Habicht, his first reading suggestion was Pearson's The Grammar of Science.

The first book that Einstein suggested for reading was Karl Pearson's The Grammar of Science.

### Correlation and dependence

**correlationcorrelatedcorrelations**

These techniques, which are widely used today for statistical analysis, include the chi-squared test, standard deviation, and correlation and regression coefficients.

Karl Pearson developed the coefficient from a similar but slightly different idea by Francis Galton.

### Regression analysis

**regressionmultiple regressionregression model**

These techniques, which are widely used today for statistical analysis, include the chi-squared test, standard deviation, and correlation and regression coefficients.

For Galton, regression had only this biological meaning, but his work was later extended by Udny Yule and Karl Pearson to a more general statistical context.

### Chi-squared test

**chi-square testchi-squared statisticChi-squared**

These techniques, which are widely used today for statistical analysis, include the chi-squared test, standard deviation, and correlation and regression coefficients.

In the 19th century, statistical analytical methods were mainly applied in biological data analysis and it was customary for researchers to assume that observations followed a normal distribution, such as Sir George Airy and Professor Merriman, whose works were criticized by Karl Pearson in his 1900 paper.

### Darwin Medal

**Royal Society Darwin Medal**

### Pearson distribution

**Pearson Type III distributionPearson's system of continuous curvesPearson**

It was first published by Karl Pearson in 1895 and subsequently extended by him in 1901 and 1916 in a series of articles on biostatistics.

### Biometrika

**Biometrika Trust**

After Bateson rejected one of Pearson's manuscripts that described a new theory for the variability of an offspring, or homotyposis, Pearson and Weldon established Biometrika in 1902.

Biometrika was established in 1901 by Francis Galton, Karl Pearson, and Raphael Weldon to promote the study of biometrics.

### Pearson correlation coefficient

**correlation coefficientPearson product-moment correlation coefficientPearson correlation**

It was developed by Karl Pearson from a related idea introduced by Francis Galton in the 1880s and for which the mathematical formula was derived and published by Auguste Bravais in 1844.

### William Bateson

**BatesonBateson, WilliamBateson's rule**

Pearson criticized Bateson and other biologists for their failure to adopt biometrical techniques in their study of evolution.

Bateson became famous as the outspoken Mendelian antagonist of Walter Raphael Weldon, his former teacher, and of Karl Pearson who led the biometric school of thinking.

### Pearson's chi-squared test

**chi-square statisticPearson chi-squared testchi-square**

Its properties were first investigated by Karl Pearson in 1900.