Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
Topographic map of Kashmir
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
The Indus River system
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

Northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

- Kashmir

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Sikh Empire

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north.

Aksai Chin

Region administered by China as part of Hotan County, Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang and Rutog County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet.

Map of Central Asia (1873) from T. Douglas Forsyth. Khotan is near top right corner. The border claimed by the British Indian Empire is shown in the two-toned purple and pink band with Shahidulla and the Kilik, Kilian and Sanju Passes north of the border.
The map shows the Indian and Chinese claims of the border in the Aksai Chin region, the Macartney-MacDonald line, the Foreign Office Line, as well as the progress of Chinese forces as they occupied areas during the Sino-Indian War.
The map given by Hung Ta-chen to the British consul at Kashgar in 1893. The boundary, marked with a thin dot-dashed line, matches the Johnson line:pp. 73, 78
Postal map of China published by the Republic of China in 1917. The boundary in Aksai Chin is as per the Johnson line.
Map including the Aksai Chin region (AMS, 1950)
A 1988 CIA map of the western Indo-Chinese border, showing Aksai Chin and other contested territories
The Tarim River Basin, 2008
Northern plains of Aksai Chin looking towards Qitai Daban (Khitai Dawan)

It is a part of the eastern portion of the Kashmir region and has been a subject of dispute between India and China since the late 1950s.

Gulab Singh

The founder of Dogra dynasty and the first Maharaja of the topa Rajput princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state under the British Raj, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War.

The Hill Fort of Maharaja Gulab Singh, 1846 drawing
A statue of Gulab Singh at Amar Mahal Palace, India
The palace of Maharaja Gulab Singh, on the banks of Tawi River, Jammu, mid-19th century
Maharaja Gulab Singh rides a well decorated white stallion across a green field. Circa 1840-45.
Memorial shrines for Gulab Singh and Ranbir Singh, Jammu, India, ca.1875-ca.1940
500 paise postal stamp of Maharaja Gulab Singh released by Government of India on October 21, 2009

. Ranjit Singh appointed a governor to administer the newly conquered area which was expanded in 1819 with the annexation of Kashmir by a Sikh force.

Kashmiri language

Kashmiri or Koshur (, कॉशुर,, /kəːʃur/) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subgroup, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris of the Kashmir region, primarily in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Pir Panjal Range

Group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and then Pakistan's Azad Kashmir and Punjab.

Pir Panjal Range from Khajjiar, Himachal Pradesh
Kashmir valley seen from satellite. Snow-capped Pir Panjal range is to the left of the image
Pir Panjal range as seen from Banihal, Jammu and Kashmir

Haji Pir Pass (altitude 2637 m) on the western Pir Panjal range on the road between Poonch and Uri in Indian-administered Kashmir.

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan Plateau in South India.


Revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.

Statue of Kashyapa in Andhra Pradesh, India

Despite its etymological origins being uncertain, Kashmir got its name from Kashyapa Rishi.

First Anglo-Sikh War

Fought between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company in 1845 and 1846 in and around the Ferozepur district of Punjab.

Topographical map of the Punjab; The Land of Five Rivers
The Sikh trophy guns
Death of Jawahar Singh, Vizier of Lahore – Illustrated London News, 29 November 1845
Raja Lal Singh, who led Sikh forces against the British during the First Anglo-Sikh War, 1846
Outpost of Rhodawala
The Battle of Ferozeshah
The Battle of Aliwal
British troops crossing the Sutlej (Punjab) in boats. 10 February 1846
Maharaja Dalip Singh, entering his palace in Lahore, escorted by British troops after the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–46)
Grand field day at Calcutta – arrival of the captured Sikh guns

Although the leaders and principal units of the army were Sikhs, there were also Punjabi, Pakhtun and Kashmiri infantry units.

Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

Topographic map of Jammu and Kashmir, with visible altitude for the Kashmir valley and Jammu region.
A high-altitude alpine lake in the Himalayan range in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir union territory (J and K) is bordered in carmine colour. Ladakh union territory (L) is bordered in blue colour.
Srinagar railway station
NH1 near Sonamarg
University of Kashmir during autumn
The Jammu and Kashmir High Court on postal stamps of India
Apples of Kashmir are famous for their taste
Boteh from an Antique Kashmiri Dochalla Shawl
Inauguration of the first Khelo India Winter Games
Vaishno Devi Temple in winter
Shalimar Gardens
Dal Lake
Amarnath Cave

Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a union territory and consisting of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.

Azad Kashmir

Landscape of Azad Kashmir
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification
Paddy field in Leepa valley
A 1946 map of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; present-day Azad Kashmir constitutes areas of the three western-most districts
Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir
Bagh City
Districts of Azad Kashmir
Kotla, Bagh District
Neelum Valley is a tourist destination in Azad Kashmir.
Munda Gali, Leepa Valley
Mirpur University of Science and Technology

Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entity and constituting the western portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947.