Kashmir

Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
Topographic map of Kashmir
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
The Indus River system
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

Northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

- Kashmir
Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir

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A portrait of Empress Joséphine wearing a Kashmir shawl and a gown made of Kashmir shawl fabric

Kashmir shawl

Type of shawl identified by its distinctive Kashmiri weave, and for being made of fine shahtoosh or pashmina wool.

Type of shawl identified by its distinctive Kashmiri weave, and for being made of fine shahtoosh or pashmina wool.

A portrait of Empress Joséphine wearing a Kashmir shawl and a gown made of Kashmir shawl fabric
Pashmina goats in Ladakh
The buta design on an 18th-century Kashmiri shawl
Hindu woman from Bombay wearing a Kashmir shawl
Painting by John Singer Sargent of women in Kashmir shawls
In this French fashion plate, the woman on the right wears a gown made from Kashmir shawl fabric and an apple-green Kashmir shawl, with white gloves, and white sandals.
A painting of Château de Malmaison, the residence of the Empress Joséphine; a Kashmir shawl in characteristic buta design is draped over the fauteuil.

The Kashmir shawl has since become a toponym for the Kashmir region itself (cashmere, named after Kashmir), inspiring mass-produced imitation industries in India and Europe, and popularising the buta motif, today known as the Paisley motif after the factories in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland that sought to replicate it.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan Plateau in South India.

Henry Montgomery Lawrence

British military officer, surveyor, administrator and statesman in British India.

British military officer, surveyor, administrator and statesman in British India.

Henry Montgomery Lawrence, engraving after unknown photographer. NPG D5026
Henry Montgomery Lawrence, after photograph by Ahmed Ali Khan, 1857. NPG
High cross Sir Henry Lawrence Memorial in The Residency, Lucknow
Memorial to Sir Henry Lawrence at St. Paul's Cathedral, London

During this time, he assisted in the sale of Kashmir to Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu as war indemnity, a move which caused considerable unrest in Lahore.

People of Leh wearing traditional dress.

Leh

Joint capital and largest city of the region administered by India as a union territory of Ladakh.

Joint capital and largest city of the region administered by India as a union territory of Ladakh.

People of Leh wearing traditional dress.
Old palace of the kings in Leh.
Leh City View from Namgyal Tsemo Monastery along with Leh Palace
Leh and its surroundings
A view of agriculture around Leh.
People of Leh
Leh City Market
National Highway 1 near Leh
Leh Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport
Leh Palace View from Leh Market
Namgyal Tsemo Gompa
Shanti Stupa
Sankar Gompa and village
Zorawar Fort
Datun Sahib
View of Leh
View of Leh from Khardung La Road
Leh, capital of Ladakh ca. 1857
The city-square in 1909
Shanti Stupa, constructed in 1983 by the Japanese
Namgyal Tsemo Gompa in Leh
Leh Mosque
Leh in winter
Complete view of Leh as seen from Shanti Stupa
Alternate view
Leh in summer
Leh viewed from Stok
Indus river near Leh
Landscapes near Leh
Shanti Stupa, Leh
Gurudwara Pathar Sahib Leh, Ladakh
Gurudwara Pathar Sahib, Leh, Ladakh
Gurudwara Pathar Sahib, Leh, Ladakh
Magnetic Hill, Leh, Ladakh

Leh was an important stopover on trade routes along the Indus Valley between Tibet to the east, Kashmir to the west and also between India and China for centuries.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Ranjit Singh

The first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

The first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Birthplace of Ranjit Singh in Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Maharaja Ranjit Singh's family genealogy
Maharaja Ranjit Singh with some of his wives.
Akali Phula Singh addressing Maharaja Ranjit Singh about his transgressions
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
circa 1816–29
"Maharaja Ranjit Singh " by Alfred de Dreux
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's throne, c. 1820–1830, Hafiz Muhammad Multani, now at V & A Museum.
Ranjit Singh's Sikh Empire at its peak
In 1835, Maharaja Ranjit Singh donated 1 tonne of gold for plating the Kashi Vishwanath Temple's dome.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
2009 portrait of Ranjit Singh wearing the Koh-i-noor diamond as a armlet.
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque.
A lithograph by Emily Eden showing one of the favourite horses of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his collection of jewels, including the Koh-i-Noor
Statue of Ranjit Singh in Amritsar.

In 1819, he successfully defeated the Afghan Sunni Muslim rulers and annexed Srinagar and Kashmir, stretching his rule into the north and the Jhelum valley, beyond the foothills of the Himalayas.

Asian black bear

Medium-sized bear species native to Asia that is largely adapted to an arboreal lifestyle.

Medium-sized bear species native to Asia that is largely adapted to an arboreal lifestyle.

The white V-shaped chest mark of an Asian black bear
A cub in a tree
A 44-day-old Asian black bear
A sow nursing her cubs
An Asian black bear feeding on berries
The dentition of an Asian black bear (below), compared with that of a tiger (above)
A bile bear in a "crush cage" on Huizhou Farm, China.
Kintoki Wrestling with a Black Bear, woodblock print by Torii Kiyomasu I, c. 1700, Honolulu Academy of Arts
An Asian black bear, shot after charging the "Old Shekarry", as illustrated in Wild Sports of the World: A Boy's Book of Natural History and Adventure (1862)
A trio of captive Asian black bears around their keeper in Florence
An Asian black bear hunt, as illustrated by Samuel Howitt
An Asian black bear skin

At the turn of the 20th century, a hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir received dozens of Asian black bear victims annually.

Kashmiri language

Kashmiri or Koshur (, कॉशुर,, /kəːʃur/) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subgroup, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris of the Kashmir region, primarily in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Central Intelligence Agency map of the former British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with present-day borders, showing the Trans-Karakoram Tract in the northern part of the state (hatched red)

Trans-Karakoram Tract

Area of approximately 2050 sqmi north of the Karakoram watershed, including the Shaksgam valley and Raskam .

Area of approximately 2050 sqmi north of the Karakoram watershed, including the Shaksgam valley and Raskam .

Central Intelligence Agency map of the former British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir with present-day borders, showing the Trans-Karakoram Tract in the northern part of the state (hatched red)
The Shaksgam Valley (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) photographed in August 2008
Detailed map showing part of the Trans-Karakoram Tract near the Shaksgam River (United States Army Map Service, 1953)
Official alignment of the Government of Pakistan in 1962. The border is in the extreme north and is depicted as a dotted line with the caption Alignment Official Pakistan Map 1962
Broad Peak lies on the border of the Tract

The northern border published by the Times Atlas in 1954 more or less followed the principle of watershed of the Kuen Lun range from the Taghdumbash Pamir to the Yangi Dawan pass north of Kulanaldi but east of the Yangi Dawan Pass, the border deviated from the principle of the watershed of the Kuen Lun range on the edge of the highlands of Kashmir and skipped from the Kuen Lun watershed rather than continuing on the Kilian, Sanju-la and Hindutash border passes despite the statement that “The eastern (Kuenlun) range forms the southern boundary of Khotan”, in the Gazetteer of Kashmir and Ladakh and is crossed by two other passes.

William Moorcroft's plaque in the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, now in Pakistan, where Moorcroft stayed in May 1820

William Moorcroft (explorer)

English veterinarian and explorer employed by the East India Company.

English veterinarian and explorer employed by the East India Company.

William Moorcroft's plaque in the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, now in Pakistan, where Moorcroft stayed in May 1820

Moorcroft continued his journey, reaching Kashmir on 3November 1822, Jalalabad on 4June 1824, and Kabul on 20 June.

Map of Middlesex, 1824. Note: west is at the top.

George Trebeck

Born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800.

Born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800.

Map of Middlesex, 1824. Note: west is at the top.

Along with Moorcroft, Trebeck travelled through the Himalayan provinces of United Provinces, the Punjab, Ladakh, Kashmir, Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz and Bokhara.