Kashubians

KashubianKashubsKashubKashubesKashubian cultureCassubianKashubiaKashubian minorityKassubesKaszubian
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia (Kashubia) in modern north-central Poland.wikipedia
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West Slavs

West SlavicWestern SlavsSlavic
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia (Kashubia) in modern north-central Poland.
West Slavic speaking nations today include the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Sorbs and ethnic groups Kashubians, Moravians and Silesians.

Kashubia

KaszubyCassubiaKashubian
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia (Kashubia) in modern north-central Poland.

Kashubian language

KashubianCashubiancsb.
They speak the Kashubian language, which is classified either as a separate language closely related to Polish, or as a Polish dialect.
Kashubian is assumed to have evolved from the language spoken by some tribes of Pomeranians called Kashubians, in the region of Pomerania, on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea between the Vistula and Oder rivers.

Gdynia

GotenhafenGdynia, PolandGdingen
Among larger cities, Gdynia (Gdiniô) contains the largest proportion of people declaring Kashubian origin.
Kashubians who were suspected to support the Polish cause, particularly those with higher education, were arrested and executed.

Gdańsk

DanzigGdanskDanzig (Gdańsk)
However, the biggest city of the Kashubia region is Gdańsk (Gduńsk), the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.
The knights colonised the area, replacing local Kashubians and Poles with German settlers.

Stefan Ramułt

Stefan Ramult
As of 1890, linguist Stefan Ramułt estimated the number of Kashubs (including Slovincians) in Pomerelia as 174,831.
Stefan Ramułt (December 22, 1859 – December 24, 1913) was a Polish scholar who specialized in the language and the culture of the Kashubians.

Pomeranian Voivodeship

PomeranianPomeraniaPomorskie
However, the biggest city of the Kashubia region is Gdańsk (Gduńsk), the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.
The central parts of the province are also known as Kashubia, named after the Kashubian minority.

Kashubian-Pomeranian Association

Jerzy Kiedrowski
The main organization that maintains the Kashubian identity is the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association.
The Kashubian-Pomeranian Association (Kashubian-Pomeranian: Kaszëbskò-Pòmòrsczé Zrzeszenié, Polish: Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie) is a regional non-governmental organization of Kashubians (Pomeranians), Kociewiacy and other people interested in the regional affairs of Kashubia and Pomerania in northern Poland.

Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia (Kashubia) in modern north-central Poland.
In addition to the lake districts in the north (in Masuria, Pomerania, Kashubia, Lubuskie, and Greater Poland), there are also many mountain lakes in the Tatras, of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in area.

Bytów

BütowBytowBütow (Bytów)
The biggest cities claiming to be the capital are: Gdańsk (Gduńsk), Wejherowo (Wejrowò), and Bytów (Bëtowò). The bulk of Slavic population in 19th century Pommern was concentrated in its easternmost counties: especially Bytów (Bütow), Lębork (Lauenburg) and Słupsk (Stolp).
Throughout its whole history, Bytów was known to be a multicultural town inhabited by Kashubians, Poles, Slovincians, Germans and Jews.

Slovincian language

SlovincianSlovincians
As of 1890, linguist Stefan Ramułt estimated the number of Kashubs (including Slovincians) in Pomerelia as 174,831. The Kashubs are grouped with the Slovincians as Pomeranians. Similarly, the Slovincian (now extinct) and Kashubian languages are grouped as Pomeranian languages, with Slovincian (also known as Łeba Kashubian) either a distinct language closely related to Kashubian, or a Kashubian dialect.
Some scholars believe that Slovincians regarded themselves merely as Lutheran Kashubians and their language as Kashubian.

Pomeranian language

PomeranianCentral PomeranianAncient Pomeranian
Similarly, the Slovincian (now extinct) and Kashubian languages are grouped as Pomeranian languages, with Slovincian (also known as Łeba Kashubian) either a distinct language closely related to Kashubian, or a Kashubian dialect.
This was especially the case in Pomerelia, where the Slavic population became known as Kashubians and their language accordingly as Kashubian.

Duchy of Pomerania

PomeraniaPomerania-WolgastPomerania-Stettin
Slavic dukes of Pomerania such as Barnim I (1220-1278) - despite calling themselves "dux Slavorum et Cassubie" - contributed a lot to the change of ethnic structure by promoting German immigration and granting land to German nobles, monks and clergy.
Except for the Pomerelian Kashubians and the Slovincians, the Wends were assimilated.

Lębork

LauenburgLauenburg in PomeraniaLauenburg in Pomerania (Lębork)
The bulk of Slavic population in 19th century Pommern was concentrated in its easternmost counties: especially Bytów (Bütow), Lębork (Lauenburg) and Słupsk (Stolp).
The population of Lauenburg was composed in large part of Kashubians, later Slovincians.

Kartuzy

KarthausCarthaus/Karthaus in West Prussia (Kartuzy)Karthaus (Kartuzy)
Between 80.3% and 93.9% of the people in towns such as Linia, Sierakowice, Szemud, Kartuzy, Chmielno, Żukowo, etc. are of Kashubian descent.
Kartuzy has long been a cultural center of the Kashubians.

Sierakowice, Pomeranian Voivodeship

Sierakowice
Between 80.3% and 93.9% of the people in towns such as Linia, Sierakowice, Szemud, Kartuzy, Chmielno, Żukowo, etc. are of Kashubian descent.
Kashubian vetch means vetch of Kashubia, the home of Kashubs.

Sopot

Sopot, PolandZoppotSopot City
The following day the Free City of Danzig was annexed by Nazi Germany and most of the local Poles, Kashubians, and Jews were arrested and imprisoned or expelled.

Pomeranians (Slavic tribe)

PomeraniansPomeranianSlavic Pomeranians
The Kashubs are grouped with the Slovincians as Pomeranians.

Pomerelia

Eastern PomeraniaGdańsk PomeraniaPomeralia
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group native to historical region of Pomerelia (Kashubia) in modern north-central Poland. As of 1890, linguist Stefan Ramułt estimated the number of Kashubs (including Slovincians) in Pomerelia as 174,831. The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, and since 1945 within the People's Republic of Poland, and after within the Third Polish Republic.
Sprachen Westpreussen en.svg who spoke German were considered German . Legend for the districts:

Polish Corridor

Danzig CorridorCorridoraccess to the Baltic sea
The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, and since 1945 within the People's Republic of Poland, and after within the Third Polish Republic.
In the 10th century, Pomerelia was settled by Slavic Pomeranians, ancestors of the Kashubians, who were subdued by Boleslaw I of Poland.

Poles

PolishPolePolish people
The Kashubs are closely related to the Poles.
Only Eastern Pomeranians preserved their Slavic ethnicity, and are commonly known as Kashubians today.

Koszalin

Köslin40 – KoszalinKoslin
Johannes Bugenhagen wrote that at the beginning of the 16th century the German-Slavic language border was near Koszalin.
The city was resettled by Poles and Kashubians, many of whom had been expelled from Polish territory annexed by the Soviets.

Aleksander Majkowski

The leader of the movement was Aleksander Majkowski, a doctor educated in Chełmno with the Society of Educational Help in Chełmno.
Aleksander Majkowski (Aleksander Majkòwsczi; 17 July 1876 – 10 February 1938) was a Kashubian writer, poet, journalist, editor, activist, and physician.

West Prussia

Province of West PrussiaWestWestpreußen
The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, and since 1945 within the People's Republic of Poland, and after within the Third Polish Republic.
Germans were also the largest group in West Prussia until its dissolution in 1922, with large numbers of Kashubians, Poles, Mennonites, and Jews also settling in the region.

Ostsiedlung

German eastward expansionGerman settlersGerman colonists
During the 13th century, German Ostsiedlung began in this region.
These were the Drawehnopolaben of the Wendland east of the Lüneburg Heath, the Jabelheide of southern Mecklenburg, the Slovincians and Kashubs of Eastern Pomerania, and the Sorbs of Lusatia.