Great coat of arms of Kaunas
St. Anne (Vytautas the Great) Church
Vytautas the Great Monument in Kaunas
One of the Kaunas Fortress barracks
Kaunas Priest Seminary was one of the centres of the Lithuanian National Revival during the Russification era
Kaunas City Theatre, where the first session of the Constituent Assembly of Lithuania was held on 15 May 1920
Kaunas Garrison Officers' Club
Kaunas during the early years of the interwar period with horse-drawn trams
Lithuanian Air Force pilots with their ANBO 41 in Linksmadvaris aerodrome
The Historical Presidential Palace
President Antanas Smetona inspects the Lithuanian Army soldiers
A Model 1:3 of Lituanica in Kaunas
Soviet political leader (without military shoulder straps) and the People's Seimas member (with red rose in his jacket lapel) announces to the Lithuanian People's Army non-commissioned officers that "soon you will become members of the Red Army" in Kaunas, 1940
LAF activists lead the arrested Commissar of the Red Army in Kaunas
Armed LAF members in Kaunas
LAF activists inspect the deprived T-38 tank from the Red Army in Kaunas
Session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania in Kaunas
Wehrmacht soldiers marching through the Liberty Avenue in Kaunas
Façade of the Kaunas Choral Synagogue
Chiune Sugihara House in Kaunas
Romas Kalanta set himself on fire close to Kaunas State Musical Theatre protesting against the Soviet regime
Vienybės aikštė (Unity Square) monument with eternal flame
Vytautas the Great War Museum
Cafés in the Kaunas Old Town
Ąžuolynas is the largest urban stand of mature oaks in Europe (ranging in age from 100 to 320 years old), and a very popular recreational destination
Kaunas Cathedral Basilica is the religious centre of Kaunas
Logo of the 2022 European Capital of Culture
M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum
Žaliakalnis Funicular Railway
Maironis Lithuanian Literature Museum, located in the Siručiai Palace
Lituanica's replica and ANBO I in the Lithuanian Aviation Museum
Kaunas State Philharmonic
Pažaislis Monastery complex has the most marble-decorated Baroque church of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Church of St. Francis Xavier, built by the Jesuits in 1666–1732, and Kaunas Town Hall, dating to 1542
Kaunas Central Post Office is one of the most recognizable buildings of interwar Lithuania (pictured in 1930)
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational movie theater in Lithuania, which was initially opened in 1940
VMU Botanical Garden
Napoleon's Hill
Coin of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, minted in Kaunas Mint, 1665
Bank of Lithuania Palace in Kaunas was built in 1924–1928 with sumptuous interior and splendid exterior in order to showcase the economic capability of a newly restored Lithuania
Aquarium in shopping centre Mega
Business centre decorated with a 1000 Lithuanian litas banknote design
Kaunas Mosque is the only brick mosque in Lithuania. To this day, it is still used by the Lipka Tatars, who were settled in the country by Vytautas the Great during the Middle Ages.
The Neviazh Kloyz is one of the remaining former synagogues located in the Kaunas Old Town. The complex was built in the 19th century and also served as a community house and school.
Kaunas city municipality main building
Kaunas District Municipality main building before reconstruction
Kaunas International Airport
Vytautas the Great Bridge
Kaunas Railway Tunnel
Solaris Trollino 12S trolleybus with distinctive lime green color in Kaunas
Kaunas S.Dariaus ir S.Girėno Sporto Centras
Kaunas Sports Hall
Interior of Žalgiris Arena
Kaunas University of Technology Science and Technology Center
Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas Clinics
Opera at the Kaunas Castle
Hanseatic Days in Kaunas

Second-largest city in Lithuania after Vilnius and an important centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.

- Kaunas

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Kaunas County

One of ten counties of Lithuania.

European route E85 in Kaunas.

It is in the centre of the country, and its capital is Kaunas.


Commune with town status in south-western Luxembourg.

The town hall
The Venice filmset in Esch (2001)
Sign at Esch-sur-Alzette railway station
Stade de la Frontière

The city was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2022, alongside Kaunas and Novi Sad.

European Capital of Culture

City designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

The logo used by European Commission for European Capital of Culture.
Melina Mercouri
Kaunas (Lithuania), the European Capital of Culture for 2022
Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg), the European Capital of Culture for 2022
Novi Sad (Serbia), the European Capital of Culture for 2022

The current European Capitals of Culture for 2022 are Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg, Kaunas, Lithuania and Novi Sad, Serbia.


River in Europe that rises in central Belarus and flows through Lithuania then forms the northern border of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia's western exclave, which specifically follows its southern channel.

Neman near Grodno
Neman opposite Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian exclave)
Nemunas bend in Liškiava
500 litas banknote featuring Nemunas loops
Napoleon and his army crossing the Neman in June 1812
The Nemunas in Druskininkai
Schematic map of Kaunas Reservoir area
Neman sunset

It flows generally west to Grodno within 12 km of the Polish border, north to Kaunas, then westward again to the sea.

Trakai Voivodeship

Unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1413 until 1795.

Trakai Voivodeship (in red) in the 17th century
Trakai Voivodeship in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Trakai Voivodeship (in red) in the 17th century

The biggest cities in the voivodeship were Kaunas, Grodno and Trakai.

Temporary capital of Lithuania

The Historical Presidential Palace in Kaunas
The Constituent Assembly Palace, where the Constituent Assembly and first three editions of Seimas gathered
Palace of Justice and the Seimas, decorated with the Lithuanian tricolors in Kaunas

The temporary capital of Lithuania (Laikinoji sostinė) was the official designation of the city of Kaunas in Lithuania during the interwar period.


The river Neris, Viliya (Ві́лія) or (Wilia) rises in northern Belarus.

Confluence of the Viliya and Narach: a conjectured reason for the dual naming of Neris
Neris near Gediminas Tower in Vilnius, Lithuania
Confluence of Neman and Neris in Kaunas
The Neris drainage basin. Standing out are the river and its main tributary. The latter rises near to Latvia, the Šventoji

It flows westward, passing through Vilnius (Lithuania's capital) and in the south-centre of that country it flows into the Nemunas (Neman), at Kaunas, as its main tributary.

Polish–Lithuanian War

Conflict between the newly independent Lithuania and Poland in the aftermath of World War I.

Polish cavalry parade in Sejny
The advance of Polish (blue arrows), Lithuanian/German (dark purple arrows) against the Soviet forces in early 1919. The blue line shows the Polish front in May 1920.
Map of demarcation lines of June 18 (light green) and July 26 (dark green) between Poland and Lithuania. Poland ignored both lines and continued to advance up to the orange line. Railroads are marked by black stitched lines.
Advance of Soviet forces (red arrows) against Polish troops in June–August 1920
Soldiers of the Lithuanian Army at the Cathedral Square, Vilnius, 1920
Map of the Suwałki Region. Its many forests and lakes complicated the military actions.
Map of the Battle of the Niemen River: Polish forces maneuvered through the Lithuanian front line (in pink) to the rear of Soviet troops
Selected demarcation lines between Poland and Lithuania. Line drawn by the Suwałki Agreement is in yellow; the final interwar border is in orange.
Map of the Republic of Central Lithuania (in green)
Article in Karys titled "Hey, world! We will not rest without Vilnius!", 1926

Żeligowski's forces invaded Vilnius, but further advances to Kaunas were halted by the Lithuanians.

Kovno Governorate

Governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire.

Kovno Governorate (light red), 1843–1915
Kovno Governorate (light red), 1843–1915

Its capital was Kaunas (Kovno in Russian).


Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009
Baltic amber was once a valuable trade resource. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.
Trakai Island Castle, the former residence of the Grand Dukes and capital city of the medieval state
Battle of Grunwald and Vytautas the Great in the centre
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918.
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiers
Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania (1919–1920, 1926–1940)
Lituanica above New York in 1933. The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight.
Soldiers of the Red Army enter the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation in 1940.
Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50,000 strong at its peak.
Site of the Paneriai massacre, where the German Nazis and their collaborators executed up to 100,000 people of various nationalities. About 70,000 of them were Jews.
Monument in Naujoji Vilnia in memory of the Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25% of the population of the Baltic states participated
An Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.
Physical map and geomorphological subdivision of Lithuania.
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.
Seimas — Parliament of Lithuania
Commemoration of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in the historical Seimas hall where it was originally signed in 1990. The ceremony is attended by the Lithuanian President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Seimas and other high-ranking officials.
Statutes of Lithuania were the central piece of Lithuanian law in 1529–1795
Lithuanian police cruiser in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius
Stamp dedicated to Lithuania's presidency of the European Union. Post of Lithuania, 2013.
Lithuania was recently a member of the United Nations Security Council. Its representatives are on the right side.
Lithuanian Army soldiers with their NATO allies during Iron Sword 2014
Lithuanian Army soldiers marching with their dress uniforms in Vilnius. An officer stands out with a sword.
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Lithuania's GDP per capita compared to rest of the world (2020)
Lithuania, GNI per capita, PPP (current international $), 2016
A proportional representation of Lithuania exports, 2019
Nasdaq Vilnius Stock Exchange, located in K29 business centre in Konstitucijos Avenue, Vilnius
LituanicaSAT-2 in the thermal-vacuum chamber.
Druskininkai is a popular spa town
Telia (skyscraper with the old Teo LT logo) and Huawei headquarters in Vilnius
Major highways in Lithuania
Marijampolė railway station, completed in 1924
Mineral water spring in Birštonas
FSRU Independence in port of Klaipėda
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant
Population of Lithuania 1915–2014
Population density
Kaunas Clinics is the largest and the most advanced medical institution in Lithuania.
Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai
Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in the region. It was established by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1579.
Vilnius University Life Sciences Center in the Sunrise Valley
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).
Vilnius Cathedral by Laurynas Gucevičius
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987
Lithuanian dark rye bread
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions
Lithuania men's national basketball team is ranked eighth worldwide in FIBA Rankings.

Its capital and largest city is Vilnius; other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda.