Kaushitaki Upanishad

KaushitakiKausitakiKaushitaki (Brahmana-) UpanishadKaushitaki UpanishadsKauśītāki
The Kaushitaki Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit text contained inside the Rigveda.wikipedia
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Muktikā

MuktikaSamanyaMuktika Upanishad
It is associated with the Kaushitaki shakha, but a Sāmānya Upanishad, meaning that it is "common" to all schools of Vedanta.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
The Kaushitaki Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit text contained inside the Rigveda.
As regards the Kaushitaki-aranyaka, this work consists of 15 adhyayas, the first two (treating of the mahavrata ceremony) and the 7th and 8th of which correspond to the first, fifth, and third books of the Aitareyaranyaka, respectively, whilst the four adhyayas usually inserted between them constitute the highly interesting Kaushitaki (Brahmana-) Upanishad, of which we possess two different recensions.

Aranyaka

Taittiriya AranyakaAitareya AranyakaAranyakas
The Kaushitaki Upanishad, also known as Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad, is part of the Kaushitaki Aranyaka or the Shankhayana Aranyaka.
Chapters 3–6 constitute the Kaushitaki Upanishad.

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Brhadaranyaka UpanishadBrihadaranyakaBṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
The chapter offers sixteen themes in explaining what Brahman (Atman) is, which overlaps with the twelve found in Chapter 2 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
The chronology and authorship of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, along with Chandogya and Kaushitaki Upanishads, is further complicated because they are compiled anthologies of literature that must have existed as independent texts before they became part of these Upanishads.

Prajna (Hinduism)

PrajnaInsightPrajna (Insight)
In many verses of chapter 3, the theme, the proof and the premise is re-asserted by Kaushitaki Upanishad, that "Prana is prajna, Prajna is prana" (वै प्राणः सा प्रज्ञा या वा प्रज्ञा स प्राणः, Life-force is consciousness, consciousness is life-force).
And, in the Kaushitaki Upanishad III.iii.4, Indra describes 'Death' as complete absorption in Prana when Prānā and Prajñā ('consciousness' or 'self'), which together live in the body and together depart, become one.

Shakha

AshvalayanashakhasVedic scholar
It is associated with the Kaushitaki shakha, but a Sāmānya Upanishad, meaning that it is "common" to all schools of Vedanta.

Vedanta

VedanticVedāntaVedantist
It is associated with the Kaushitaki shakha, but a Sāmānya Upanishad, meaning that it is "common" to all schools of Vedanta.

Juan Mascaró

Joan MascaróJuan Mascaro
Juan Mascaró posits that Kaushitaki Upanishad was probably composed after Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya and Taittiriya Upanishads, but before all other ancient Principal Upanishads of Hinduism.

Paul Deussen

Deussen
Deussen as well as Winternitz consider the Kaushitaki Upanishad as amongst the most ancient prose style Upanishads, and pre-Buddhist, pre-Jaina literature.

Patrick Olivelle

Olivelle
According to a 1998 review by Patrick Olivelle, and other scholars, the Kaushitaki Upanishad was likely composed in a pre-Buddhist period, but after the more ancient Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads, placing the Kaushitaki text between 6th to 5th century BCE.

Karma

karmicKarmaskamma
In the first chapter of the Kausitaki Upanishad, rebirth and transmigration of Atman (Soul) is asserted as existent, and that one's life is affected by karma, and then it asks whether there is liberation and freedom from the cycles of birth and rebirth.

Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmam
It then states, in a dialogue between Man and Brahman (Universal Soul, Eternal Reality),

Agnihotra

agni-hotraAgnihotra ritual in Nepal
In verse 5 of the second chapter, the Kausitaki Upanishad asserts that "external rituals such as Agnihotram offered in the morning and in the evening, must be replaced with inner Agnihotram, the ritual of introspection".

Prana

pranicprāṇaapana
In many verses of chapter 3, the theme, the proof and the premise is re-asserted by Kaushitaki Upanishad, that "Prana is prajna, Prajna is prana" (वै प्राणः सा प्रज्ञा या वा प्रज्ञा स प्राणः, Life-force is consciousness, consciousness is life-force).

Edward Byles Cowell

E. B. CowellCowell, E.B.Edward Cowell
Edward Cowell translates these last verses as, "Prana is prajna, it is joy, it is eternally young, it is immortal. This is the guardian of the world, this is the king of the world, this is the lord of the world, this is my soul. Thus let a man know, thus let a man know."

Sri Aurobindo Ashram

Sri Aurobindo International Centre of EducationAurobindo AshramAshram

Saṅkhāra

formationssankharasankhāra
Saṃskāra is found in the Hindu Upanishads such as in verse 2.6 of Kaushitaki Upanishad, 4.16.2–4 of Chandogya Upanishad, 6.3.1 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as well as mentioned by the ancient Indian scholar Panini and many others.

Surya

SunSun GodSūrya
He is then interiorized to be the eye as ancient Hindu sages suggested abandonment of external rituals to gods in favor of internal reflections and meditation of gods within, in one's journey to realize the Atman (soul, self) within, in texts such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Kaushitaki Upanishad and others.

Vindhya Range

VindhyaVindhyasVindhyan
The "Daksinaparvata" ("Southern Mountain") mentioned in the Kaushitaki Upanishad is also identified with the Vindhyas.

Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhya
Johnston in 1937 analyzed then available Hindu and Buddhist texts for the origins of Samkhya and wrote "the origin lay in the analysis of the individual undertaken in the Brahmanas and earliest Upanishads, at first with a view to assuring the efficacy of the sacrificial rites and later in order to discover the meaning of salvation in the religious sense and the methods of attaining it. Here – in Kaushitaki Upanishad and Chandogya Upanishad – the germs are to be found (of) two of the main ideas of classical Samkhya."

Dhyana in Hinduism

dhyanadhyānameditation
The Kaushitaki Upanishad uses it in the context of mind and meditation in verses 3.2 to 3.6, for example as follows:

Upanishads

UpanishadUpanishadicUpanisads
The Kaushitaki Upanishad asserts that "external rituals such as Agnihotram offered in the morning and in the evening, must be replaced with inner Agnihotram, the ritual of introspection", and that "not rituals, but knowledge should be one's pursuit".