Kaypro

Kaypro IIKaypro ComputerKaypro 4
Kaypro Corporation was an American home and personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s.wikipedia
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Osborne 1

OsborneOsborne Ifirst portable microcomputer
The company was founded by Non-Linear Systems to compete with the popular Osborne 1 portable microcomputer.
Competitors quickly appeared, such as the Kaypro II.

CP/M

CP/M-80CP/M operating systemBDOS
Kaypro produced a line of rugged, "luggable" CP/M-based computers sold with an extensive software bundle which supplanted its competitors and quickly became one of the top-selling personal computer lines of the early 1980s. ) Set in an aluminum case, with a keyboard that snapped onto the front, covering the 9" CRT display and drives, it weighed 29 lbs and was equipped with a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, 64 kilobytes of RAM, and two 5¼-inch double-density single-sided floppy disk drives. It ran Digital Research, Inc.'s CP/M operating system, the industry standard for 8-bit computers with 8080 or Z80 CPUs, and sold for about US$1,795.
For example, one Kaypro used them for Greek characters, and Osborne machines used the 8th bit set to indicate an underlined character.

Andrew Kay

Kay Computers
Kaypro began as Non-Linear Systems, a maker of electronic test equipment, founded in 1952 by Andrew Kay, the inventor of the digital voltmeter.
He was President and CEO of Kaypro, a personal computer company, which at one time was the world’s fourth largest manufacturer of computers, and the largest in the world in sales of portable computers.

Product bundling

compilationbundledbundle
Computers such as the Kaypro II were widely referred to as "appliance" or "turnkey" machines; they offered little in the way of expandability or features that would interest hackers or electronics hobbyists and were mainly characterized by their affordable price and a collection of bundled software.
BYTE in 1984 observed that "Kaypro apparently has tremendous buying and bargaining power", noting that the Kaypro 10 came with both WordStar and Perfect Writer, plus "two spelling checkers, two spreadsheets, two communications programs and three versions of BASIC".

Micro Cornucopia

Another popular magazine that covered Kaypro computers was Micro Cornucopia, published at Bend, Oregon.
It soon expanded its coverage to other board-level computers, the Kaypro computer, and general hobbyist/experimental computing, with special interest areas being robotics, interfacing, embedded systems and programming languages.

Voltmeter

Digital voltmetervolt metervoltmeters
Kaypro began as Non-Linear Systems, a maker of electronic test equipment, founded in 1952 by Andrew Kay, the inventor of the digital voltmeter.
The first digital voltmeter was invented and produced by Andrew Kay of Non-Linear Systems (and later founder of Kaypro) in 1954.

Osborne Computer Corporation

OsborneOsborne Computer
Kaypro's success contributed to the eventual failure of the Osborne Computer Corporation and Morrow Designs.
Kaypro Computer offered portables that, like the Osborne 1, ran CP/M and included a software bundle, but Kaypro offered larger 9 inch (229 mm) screens.

Zilog Z80

Z80Z80AZ-80
) Set in an aluminum case, with a keyboard that snapped onto the front, covering the 9" CRT display and drives, it weighed 29 lbs and was equipped with a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, 64 kilobytes of RAM, and two 5¼-inch double-density single-sided floppy disk drives. It ran Digital Research, Inc.'s CP/M operating system, the industry standard for 8-bit computers with 8080 or Z80 CPUs, and sold for about US$1,795.
Four well-known examples of Z80 business computers running CP/M are the Heathkit H89, the portable Osborne 1, the Kaypro series, and the Epson QX-10.

Compaq Portable

PortableCompaq
Instead, Kaypro watched as a new company—Compaq—grabbed its market with the Compaq Portable, an all-in-one portable computer that was similar to Kaypro's own CP/M portables with the exception of running MS-DOS with near 100% IBM PC compatibility.
The computer was an early all-in-one, becoming available two years after the CP/M-based Osborne 1 and Kaypro II, in the same year as the MS-DOS-based (but not entirely IBM PC compatible) Dynalogic Hyperion, and a year before the Commodore SX-64.

Non-Linear Systems

nonlinear systems
The company was founded by Non-Linear Systems to compete with the popular Osborne 1 portable microcomputer.
During the early 1980s the company started Kaypro, which developed an early personal computer.

S-BASIC

The first application software that came with the Kaypro II included a highly unpopular word processor called Select that was quickly dropped in favor of a proto office suite from Perfect Software which included Perfect Writer, Perfect Calc, Perfect Filer, and Perfect Speller, as well as Kaypro's own S-BASIC compiler (which produced executable .com files).
S-BASIC (for Structured Basic) was a "structured" BASIC variant, distributed with Kaypro CP/M systems.

MINCE

Perfect Writer was initially a rebranded version of the MINCE and Scribble software packages from Mark of the Unicorn, which are CP/M implementations of Emacs and Scribe, ported from their original minicomputer-based versions using BDS C.
Developed in BDS C by Mark of the Unicorn, it was bundled with computers from Kaypro and Morrow Designs, and the Epson QX-10.

WordStar

MicroProMicroPro InternationalWordStar 4.0
The initial bundled applications were soon replaced by the well-known titles WordStar, a word processor, with MailMerge, originally a third-party accessory, for personalised mass mailings (form letters), the SuperCalc spreadsheet, two versions of the Microsoft BASIC interpreter, Kaypro's S-BASIC, a bytecode-compiled BASIC called C-Basic, and the dBase II relational database system.
It was part of the software bundle that accompanied Kaypro computers.

Perfect Writer

The first application software that came with the Kaypro II included a highly unpopular word processor called Select that was quickly dropped in favor of a proto office suite from Perfect Software which included Perfect Writer, Perfect Calc, Perfect Filer, and Perfect Speller, as well as Kaypro's own S-BASIC compiler (which produced executable .com files).
Along with its companion spreadsheet (Perfect Calc), and database (Perfect Filer), Perfect Writer was bundled with early Kaypro II and Morrow computers and had a list price of USD$349.

CatChum

The Kaypro II and later models also came with some games, including versions of old character-based games such as Star Trek; a few were arcade games re-imagined in ASCII, including CatChum (a Pac-Man-like game), Aliens (a Space Invaders-like game) and Ladder (a Donkey Kong-like game).
CatChum is a text-only clone of Pac-Man written for the CP/M operating system and made to be operated on the early Kaypro line of luggable computers.

Aliens (1982 video game)

AliensAliens'' (1982 video game)
The Kaypro II and later models also came with some games, including versions of old character-based games such as Star Trek; a few were arcade games re-imagined in ASCII, including CatChum (a Pac-Man-like game), Aliens (a Space Invaders-like game) and Ladder (a Donkey Kong-like game).
Aliens is a text-only clone of Space Invaders written for the CP/M operating system and made to be operated on the early Kaypro line of luggable computers.

Ladder (video game)

LadderLadder'' (video game)
The Kaypro II and later models also came with some games, including versions of old character-based games such as Star Trek; a few were arcade games re-imagined in ASCII, including CatChum (a Pac-Man-like game), Aliens (a Space Invaders-like game) and Ladder (a Donkey Kong-like game).
Ladder is a barrel-jumping game like Donkey Kong written for the CP/M operating system and made to be operated on the early Kaypro line of luggable computers.

BDS C

BDS C Compiler
Perfect Writer was initially a rebranded version of the MINCE and Scribble software packages from Mark of the Unicorn, which are CP/M implementations of Emacs and Scribe, ported from their original minicomputer-based versions using BDS C.
A number of important commercial CP/M products were written in the BDS C subset (no long integer, no floating-point arithmetic) of the C language, including PeachText from PeachTree Software, MINCE and Scribble from Mark of the Unicorn, and most of the software in the Perfect Software suite including Perfect Writer, PerfectCalc, PerfectSpeller and PerfectFiler (which suite was bundled with the Kaypro).

ASCII

US-ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information InterchangeASCII code
The Kaypro II and later models also came with some games, including versions of old character-based games such as Star Trek; a few were arcade games re-imagined in ASCII, including CatChum (a Pac-Man-like game), Aliens (a Space Invaders-like game) and Ladder (a Donkey Kong-like game).
Kaypro CP/M computers used the "upper" 128 characters for the Greek alphabet.

Otrona

Otrona Attaché
Although he preferred the much more expensive Otrona Attaché, Pournelle called the Kaypro's hardware "impressive" and "rugged," approving of the keyboard layout and "certainly the largest screen you'll ever get in a portable machine."
Unlike the Kaypro, Attache was not IBM compatible.

Microcomputer

microcomputersmicrocomputingmicro-computer
The company was founded by Non-Linear Systems to compete with the popular Osborne 1 portable microcomputer.

IBM PC compatible

PCPC compatibleIBM PC compatibles
Instead, Kaypro watched as a new company—Compaq—grabbed its market with the Compaq Portable, an all-in-one portable computer that was similar to Kaypro's own CP/M portables with the exception of running MS-DOS with near 100% IBM PC compatibility. Kaypro was exceptionally loyal to its original customer base but slow to adapt to the changing computer market and the advent of IBM PC compatible technology.

Apple II

Apple 2AppleApple II Plus
Despite being the first model to be released commercially, the original system was branded as the Kaypro II (at a time when one of the most popular microcomputers was the Apple II).

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessors
) Set in an aluminum case, with a keyboard that snapped onto the front, covering the 9" CRT display and drives, it weighed 29 lbs and was equipped with a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, 64 kilobytes of RAM, and two 5¼-inch double-density single-sided floppy disk drives. It ran Digital Research, Inc.'s CP/M operating system, the industry standard for 8-bit computers with 8080 or Z80 CPUs, and sold for about US$1,795.

Disk density

double densityDDsingle density
) Set in an aluminum case, with a keyboard that snapped onto the front, covering the 9" CRT display and drives, it weighed 29 lbs and was equipped with a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, 64 kilobytes of RAM, and two 5¼-inch double-density single-sided floppy disk drives. It ran Digital Research, Inc.'s CP/M operating system, the industry standard for 8-bit computers with 8080 or Z80 CPUs, and sold for about US$1,795.