Kazakhstan

Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

- Kazakhstan

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Kazakhstan–Russia border

Map of Kazakhstan, with Russia to the north
Pillars marking the border
Map of the area of modern Kazakhstan from 1914, showing the former Oblasts of Ural, Turgay, Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk
Soviet Central Asia in 1922
The Orlyu-Tobe border crossing
Caspian Sea
includes tripoint with China

The Kazakhstan–Russia border (Казахстанско-российская граница) is the 7644 km international border between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.

Eastern Europe

Ambiguous term that refers to the eastern portions of the European continent.

Computer rendering of Eastern Europe
Traditional cultural borders of Europe: usage recommendation by the Standing Committee on Geographical Names, Germany.
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E.g. Kazakhstan, which is mainly located in Central Asia with the most western parts of it located west of the Ural River also shares a part of Eastern Europe.

Eurasian Economic Union

Economic union of some post-Soviet states located in Eurasia.

Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
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Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
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Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Mountain range – Armenia
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Winter – Belarus
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
Lake Ayger – Armenia
Lake Servech – Belarus
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Transcontinental political, economic, security, and military alliance.

Russian President Vladimir Putin, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev, and Tajik President Emomali Rahmon, at one time the leaders of the Shanghai Five.
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Afghan President Hamid Karzai at an SCO summit in 2004.
SCO leaders at Peace Mission 2007. Hu Jintao, Vladimir Putin, Nursultan Nazarbayev and Islam Karimov
Leaders present at the SCO summit in Yekaterinburg, Russia in 2009.
SCO summit in Ufa, Russia in 2015
{{flagicon|PRC}} People's Republic of China
{{flagicon|IND}} Republic of India
{{flagicon|KAZ}} Republic of Kazakhstan
{{flagicon|KGZ}} Kyrgyz Republic
{{flagicon|PAK}} Islamic Republic of Pakistan
{{flagicon|RUS}} Russian Federation
{{flagicon|TJK}} Republic of Tajikistan
{{flagicon|UZB}} Republic of Uzbekistan

The SCO is the successor to the Shanghai Five, a mutual security agreement formed in 1996 between China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.

Collective Security Treaty Organization

Intergovernmental military alliance in Eurasia.

Flag
Flag
The CSTO meeting in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, 8 November 2018
Stamp of Kazakhstan, 2012

In January 2022, the CSTO deployed 2,000 of its peacekeepers to Kazakhstan.

List of transcontinental countries

[[File:transcontinental nations.svg|thumb|upright=1.8|A map of transcontinental countries, and countries that control territory in more than one continent.

Map of the Darién Gap at the border between Colombia and Panama

This convention results in several countries such as in the case of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkey finding themselves almost entirely in 'Asia', with a few small enclaves or districts technically in 'Europe'.

Landlocked country

Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)
Bolivia's loss of its coastline in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue

Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country.

Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

One of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936 to 1991 in northern Central Asia.

Location of Kazakhstan (red) within the Soviet Union
Demographics of Kazakhstan from 1897 to 1970, with major ethnic groups. Famines of the 1920s and 1930s are marked with shades.
Location of Kazakhstan (red) within the Soviet Union

The Kazakh SSR was renamed the Republic of Kazakhstan on 10 December 1991, which declared its independence six days later, as the last republic to secede from the USSR on 16 December 1991.

China–Kazakhstan border

Map of Kazakhstan with China to the east
The Sino-Russian border set forth in the Protocol of Chuguchak (1864). Today's Sino-Kazakh border largely follows the line set in this protocol, with only fairly small changes
Soviet border guards patrolling the USSR-China border (now Kazakhstan-China border) near Khorgos, 1984
Changes in the border between Kazakhstan and China
near Altai Town
near Altay City
near Zharkent
near Aksu City
near Russian SSR (modern-day Russia)
near Kirghiz SSR (modern-day Kyrgyzstan)

The China–Kazakhstan border or the Sino-Kazakhstan border (, Казахстанско-китайская государственная граница, ), is the international border between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Commonwealth of Independent States

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991
The 20–22 June 2000 CIS Summit
Member states:
Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008
The members of the council meeting in Moscow in 2017

On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or foundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.