Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)
Bolivia's loss of its coastline in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue
Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

- Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country.

- Landlocked country

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Uzbekistan

Female statuette wearing the kaunakes. Chlorite and limestone, Bactria, beginning of the second millennium BC
Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus. Mosaic in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Triumphant crowd at Registan, Sher-Dor Madrasah. The Emir of Bukhara viewing the severed heads of Russian soldiers on poles. Painting by Vasily Vereshchagin (1872).
Russian troops taking Samarkand in 1868, by Nikolay Karazin.
Two Sart men and two Sart boys in Samarkand, c. 1910
Map of Uzbekistan, including the former Aral Sea.
Uzbekistan map of Köppen climate classification
Cotton picking near Kyzyl-Kala, Karakalpakstan.
Map of flooded areas as a result of the collapse of the Sardoba Reservoir
Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014
The Legislative Chamber of Uzbekistan (Lower House).
Islam Karimov, the first President of Uzbekistan, during a visit to the Pentagon in 2002
President Islam Karimov with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Samarkand in November 2015
Leaders present at the SCO summit in Ufa, Russia in 2015
Political Map of Uzbekistan
A proportional representation of Uzbekistan exports, 2019
Yodgorlik silk factory
Bread sellers in Urgut
Population pyramid 2016
Newlywed couples visit Tamerlane's statues to receive wedding blessings.
Uzbek children
Shakh-i Zindeh mosque, Samarkand
Mosque of Bukhara
Bukharan Jews, c. 1899
A page in Uzbek language written in Nastaʿlīq script printed in Tashkent 1911
Central Station of Tashkent
The Afrosiyob high-speed train
Uzbek troops during a cooperative operation exercise
Traditional Uzbek pottery
Navoi Opera Theater in Tashkent
Embroidery from Uzbekistan
Silk and Spice Festival in Bukhara
Palov
Uzbek manti
Milliy Stadium in Tashkent.

Uzbekistan (, ; Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.

It is surrounded by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the south-west.

Tajikistan

The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961–976)
19th-century painting of lake Zorkul and a local Tajik inhabitant
Soviet negotiations with basmachi, 1921
Soviet Tajikistan in 1964
Spetsnaz soldiers during the civil war, 1992
The Palace of Nations in Dushanbe
President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon has ruled the country since 1994.
Supreme Assembly in Dushanbe.
President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon with Russian president Vladimir Putin.
Satellite photograph of Tajikistan
Tajikistan map of Köppen climate classification
Mountains of Tajikistan
Karakul lake
A proportional representation of Tajikistan exports, 2019
A Tajik dry fruit seller
The TadAZ aluminium smelting plant, in Tursunzoda, is the largest aluminium manufacturing plant in Central Asia, and Tajikistan's chief industrial asset.
Real GPD per capita development of Tajikistan
Tajikistan: trends in its Human Development Index indicator 1970–2010
Group of Tajik women
Nowruz celebrations in Tajikistan
Tajik traditional dress
A mosque in Isfara, Tajikistan
A hospital in Dushanbe
Tajik National University in Dushanbe
Tajikistan is a popular destination amongst mountaineers. 1982 expedition to Tartu Ülikool 350.

Tajikistan (, ; Тоҷикистон; Таджикистан), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон), is a landlocked country in Central Asia.

The principal segments are in the southern region and connect the capital with the industrial areas of the Hisor and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyz Khaganate
Silk road caravansarai utilized during the Islamic Golden Age
Bishkek
Urial on a Kyrgyzstan stamp
Nomads in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz family in the village of Sary-Mogol, Osh Region
Kyrgyzstan's second-largest city, Osh, in 2018
Kyrgyzstan's topography
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region
A map of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan map of Köppen climate classification
Sadyr Japarov, President of Kyrgyzstan
Supreme Council building in Bishkek.
Japarov with Vladimir Putin.
President Sooronbay Jeenbekov at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit in China, June 2018
Kyrgyz soldiers conducting mine sweeping exercises.
A proportional representation of Kyrgyzstan exports, 2019
Southern shore of Issyk Kul Lake.
Issyk Kul Lake
A population pyramid showing Kyrgyzstan's age distribution (2005).
Population density of Kyrgyzstan, 2015
Kyrgyz men in Naryn Region
Uzbeks in Osh
The name of Kyrgyzstan rendered in the traditional script in use from 13th century to 1920.
Karakol Dungan Mosque
Bishkek Eastern Orthodox Church
Mosque under construction in Kyrgyzstan
Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music.
A traditional Kyrgyz manaschi performing part of the Epic of Manas at a yurt camp in Karakol
Hunting with an eagle
Bandy: Kyrgyzstan in red against Japan
Bishkek West Bus Terminal
Street scene in Osh.

Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia.

Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south, and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

Turkmenistan

Turkmen helmet (15th century)
City of Çärjew in Russian Turkestan, 1890
A Turkmen man of Central Asia in traditional clothes. Photo by Prokudin-Gorsky between 1905 and 1915.
Golden statue of Saparmurat Niyazov in Ashgabat
President Berdimuhamedov with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 2017
Topography of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan map of Köppen climate classification
A proportional representation of Turkmenistan exports, 2019
Ceremony on completion of the Turkmen section of the Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline.
Oil platform of Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea.
The generators of the Hindukush hydro power plant
Panorama of the site of the Darvaza gas crater
Turkmenistan Airlines Boeing 777-200LR
Workers in the service of Maritime and River Transport of Turkmenistan
Turkmen Diesel locomotive
Turkmens in folk costume at the 20th Independence Day parade, 2011.
Ashgabat Mosque, 2013
Russian Orthodox church in Mary
Turkmen bakshy – traditional musicians – historically are traveling singers and shamans, acting as healers and spiritual figures, providing music for celebrations of weddings, births, and other important life events.
Turkmeni students in university uniform

Turkmenistan ( or ; Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003

Caspian Sea

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
Area around the Caspian Sea. Yellow area indicates the (approximate) drainage area.
Caspian Sea near Aktau, Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan
Iran's northern Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests are maintained by moisture captured from the Caspian Sea by the Alborz Mountain Range.
Most tadpole gobies (Benthophilus) are only found in the Caspian Sea basin.
Illustration of two Caspian tigers, extinct in the region since the 1970s.
A New and Accurate Map of the Caspian Sea by the Soskam Sabbus & Emanuel Bowen, 1747.
Caspian Sea (Bahr ul-Khazar). 10th century map by Ibn Hawqal
The 17th-century Cossack rebel and pirate Stenka Razin, on a raid in the Caspian (Vasily Surikov, 1906)
Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan is the largest city by the Caspian Sea.
Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian republic of Dagestan, is the third-largest city on the Caspian Sea.
Oil pipelines in the Caspian region. September 2002
Drilling platform "Iran Khazar" in use at a Dragon Oil production platform in the Cheleken field (Turkmenistan).
Caspian region oil and natural gas infrastructure. August 2013.
Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.
Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

It is bounded by Kazakhstan from mid-north to mid-east, Russia from mid-north to mid-west, Azerbaijan to the southwest, Iran to the south and adjacent corners, and Turkmenistan along southern parts of its eastern coast.

Access to the Volga is key for market efficiency and economic diversity of the landlocked states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan.

Bolivia

Country located in western-central South America.

Country located in western-central South America.

Puerta del Sol, Archaeological Zone of Tiwanaku, Bolivia
Fuerte Chané de Samaipata
Tiwanaku at its largest territorial extent, AD 950 (present-day boundaries shown).
Inca Expansion (1438–1533)
Casa de La Moneda, Potosí
Casa de La Libertad, Sucre
Banco Central de Bolivia, Sucre
The first coat of arms of Bolivia, formerly named the Republic of Bolívar in honor of Simón Bolívar
Bolivia's territorial losses (1867–1938)
In 1971 Hugo Banzer Suárez, supported by the CIA, forcibly ousted President Torres in a coup.
Former President, Evo Morales
2020 Bolivian general election, results by department
Inauguration of Luis Arce and David Choquehuanca on 8 November 2020
Mururata as seen from the tropical valleys of the Yungas
Laguna Colorada in the Puna de Lipez in Potosí
Topographical map of Bolivia
Satellite image of Bolivia
Bolivian Altiplano.
Sol de Mañana (Morning Sun in Spanish), a geothermal field in Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve, Potosi Department, southwestern Bolivia. The area, characterized by intense volcanic activity, with sulfur spring fields and mud lakes, has indeed no geysers but rather holes that emit pressurized steam up to 50 meters high.
Bolivia map of Köppen climate classification.
Amazon river basin seen in Pando Department, Northern Bolivia
Mean annual precipitation in Bolivia
Chacaltaya Ski Resort, La Paz Department
New Executive Building of the Bolivian Government
Building of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly in central La Paz
The Supreme Court Building in the capital of Bolivia, Sucre
Government buildings in Bolivia's executive and legislative capital La Paz
Government buildings in Bolivia's judicial capital Sucre
Presidents of Bolivia, Cuba and El Salvador greet Nicolás Maduro at Maduro's second inauguration in Caracas on 10 January 2019
Serranía de Los Volcanes in Cuevas, Florida Province
View of the Capital of La Paz, or Chuqiyapumarka, from the Zona Sur
Province of Nor Yungas, near Coroico
El Palmar Nature Preserve, in northern Chuquisaca
The three FCAB units GL26C-2 2005, 2010 and GT22CU-3 2402 climb the Ascotan pass. The train is hauling lead ore from the San Cristobal mine in Bolivia to Antofagasta, Chile
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Bolivia exports, 2019
YPFB Headquarters in El Prado, Nuestra Señora de La Paz
Boliviana de Aviación (BoA) is a state-owned company and the country's largest airline. Two BoA Boeing 737-300s parked at Jorge Wilstermann International Airport.
People in La Paz city center
Danza de los macheteros, typical dance from San Ignacio de Moxos, Bolivia
Aymara man, near Lake Titicaca, Bolivia
Church of San Lorenzo de Carangas, Potosí, mid-16th century–1744.
Bolivian children playing tarka
The Diablada, dance primeval, typical and main of Carnival of Oruro a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity since 2001 in Bolivia (File: Fraternidad Artística y Cultural "La Diablada")
Leopardus pardalis
Saimiri boliviensis
Ñandú
Lama glama
Inia boliviensis
Swietenia macrophylla
Chenopodium quinoa
Echinopsis boyuibensis
Ceiba speciosa
Handroanthus impetiginosus
Cóndor
Tucán
Phoenicopterus andinus

With 1098581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, after Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Colombia (and alongside Paraguay, one of the only two landlocked countries in the Americas), the 27th largest in the world, the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere, and the world's seventh largest landlocked country, after Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Chad, Niger, Mali, and Ethiopia.

Mongolia

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7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

Mongolia, (, Монгол Улс, Traditional Mongolian: Moŋğol ulus; lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its westernmost point is only 36.76 km from Kazakhstan.

Moldova

Kievan-rus-1015-1113-(en)
The Principality of Moldavia and the modern boundaries of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania
Territorial changes of Moldavia following the Treaty of Bucharest 1812.
A map of Greater Romania between 1920 and 1940.
Monument to the villagers who died in World War II, the village Cojușna, Strășeni District.
Bessarabia Germans evacuating after the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia in 1940.
Bălți in Soviet Moldavia in 1985
Deputy Gheorghe Ghimpu replaces the Soviet flag on the Parliament with the Romanian flag on 27 April 1990.
Protests outside the Parliament building in 2009
The Moldovan Parliament
Presidential Palace, Chișinău
Ministry of Internal Affairs of Moldova, Chișinău
Accession to the EU is a central issue in Moldovan politics
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
A soldier of the Moldovan Army at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany
Scenery in Moldova, with Dniester River
Beach on the shore of Dniester River near Vadul lui Vodă
Cave churches at Old Orhei, part of the only national park in the country
Toltrele Prutului near Fetești, Edineț District
Noted for its vivid portrayal of the lower Dniester river, Henryk Sienkiewicz's novel With Fire and Sword opens with a description of saigas as a way to highlight the story's exotic setting. Saigas are a critically endangered species that is now extinct in Moldova.
A proportional representation of Moldova exports, 2019
Moldova GDP by sector
Real GPD per capita development of Moldova, 1973 to 2018
MallDova shopping centre in Chișinău
Mileștii Mici is home to the world's biggest wine cellars.
Chișinău International Airport.
Ethnic map of the Republic of Moldova (2014)
The National Library of Moldova
Moldovans wearing national costumes in Chișinău
Popular Moldovan dishes accompanied by sauerkraut and mămăligă.
Zdob și Zdub performing at the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest.
Moldova national football team in 2015
Moldavian Orthodox church in Condrița.

Moldova (, sometimes ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

During the periods 1940–1941 and 1944–1953, deportations of locals to the northern Urals, to Siberia, and northern Kazakhstan occurred regularly, with the largest ones on 12–13 June 1941, and 5–6 July 1949, accounting from MSSR alone for 18,392 and 35,796 deportees respectively.