Kazakhstan

Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

- Kazakhstan

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Commonwealth of Independent States

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991
The 20–22 June 2000 CIS Summit
Member states:
Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008
The members of the council meeting in Moscow in 2017

On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or foundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.

Irtysh

Map including the lower reaches of the Irtysh River
The Irtysh in Omsk
The Irtysh near Pavlodar in Kazakhstan
Tobolsk river wharves in 1912
An aerial view of the Irtysh in Omsk
The Sixty Years of Victory Bridge in Omsk. (The name commemorates the 60th anniversary of the V-E Day)
Irtysh River landscape in Burqin County, China

The Irtysh (, Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, ه‌رتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; إيرتيش, Әртиш, Ertish; Иртеш, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.

Syr Darya

River in Central Asia.

River in Central Asia.

Astronaut photograph of the Syr Darya River floodplain
Syr Darya River at Khujand

It originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for 2256.25 km west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Transcontinental political, economic, security, and military alliance.

Transcontinental political, economic, security, and military alliance.

Russian President Vladimir Putin, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev, and Tajik President Emomali Rahmon, at one time the leaders of the Shanghai Five.
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Afghan President Hamid Karzai at an SCO summit in 2004.
SCO leaders at Peace Mission 2007. Hu Jintao, Vladimir Putin, Nursultan Nazarbayev and Islam Karimov
Leaders present at the SCO summit in Yekaterinburg, Russia in 2009.
SCO summit in Ufa, Russia in 2015
{{flagicon|PRC}} People's Republic of China
{{flagicon|IND}} Republic of India
{{flagicon|KAZ}} Republic of Kazakhstan
{{flagicon|KGZ}} Kyrgyz Republic
{{flagicon|PAK}} Islamic Republic of Pakistan
{{flagicon|RUS}} Russian Federation
{{flagicon|TJK}} Republic of Tajikistan
{{flagicon|UZB}} Republic of Uzbekistan

The SCO is the successor to the Shanghai Five, a mutual security agreement formed in 1996 between China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.

Tian Shan Mountains from space, October 1997, with Issyk-Kul Lake in Kyrgyzstan at the northern end

Tian Shan

Large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

Large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

Tian Shan Mountains from space, October 1997, with Issyk-Kul Lake in Kyrgyzstan at the northern end
Tian Shan with the ancient silk road
Kyrgyzstan (borders marked in red) The indentation on the west is the Fergana Valley
Map of Tian Shan.
In the Karakol valley (Issyk-Kul Region, Kyrgyzstan)
Snow-capped peaks of the Tian Shan seen from an Issyk Kul Lake beach
Koldeneng Valley in Ili Prefecture

Tian Shan is north and west of the Taklamakan Desert and directly north of the Tarim Basin in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Xinjiang in Northwest China.

Ural (river)

The bridge across the Ural in the Uchalinsky District (Bashkortostan)
The "bird's-foot" ("digitate") delta of the Ural in the Caspian Sea
Eurasian Spoonbill
Northern mole vole
Bagrenye on the Ural River. Drawing by N. F. Savichev (19th century)
The tip of an old pike pole

The Ural (Урал, ), known as Yaik (Яик, Яйыҡ, ; Жайық, جايىق, ) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in the continental border between Europe and Asia.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)

Landlocked country

Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basins.

Landlocked countries: 42 landlocked (green), 2 doubly landlocked (purple)
Bolivia's loss of its coastline in the War of the Pacific (1879–1884) remains a major political issue

Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country.

Khanate of Khiva

Central Asian polity that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm in Central Asia from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nader Shah between 1740 and 1746.

Central Asian polity that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm in Central Asia from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nader Shah between 1740 and 1746.

The Khanate of Khiva (bordered in red), c. 1700.
Khanate of Khiva (labeled Karasm), on a 1734 French map. The Khanate on the map surrounds the Aral Sea
A 1903 Polish map showing Khiva (Chiwa, in Polish) within the much reduced borders the Khanate had during 1874–1920
The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand in the time period of 1902–1903
Persian slave in the Khanate of Khiva, 16th century. Painting made in the 19th century
Khanate of Khiva in 1900 (in grey)
Muhammad Rahim Khan II and his officials at the coronation of Nicholas II, Khan of Khiva is sitting third from the right
Seid Muhammad Rahim, c. 1880
Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur circa 1911

It covered present western Uzbekistan, southwestern Kazakhstan and much of Turkmenistan before Russian arrival at the second half of the 19th century.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003

Caspian Sea

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
Area around the Caspian Sea. Yellow area indicates the (approximate) drainage area.
Caspian Sea near Aktau, Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan
Iran's northern Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests are maintained by moisture captured from the Caspian Sea by the Alborz Mountain Range.
Most tadpole gobies (Benthophilus) are only found in the Caspian Sea basin.
Illustration of two Caspian tigers, extinct in the region since the 1970s.
A New and Accurate Map of the Caspian Sea by the Soskam Sabbus & Emanuel Bowen, 1747.
Caspian Sea (Bahr ul-Khazar). 10th century map by Ibn Hawqal
The 17th-century Cossack rebel and pirate Stenka Razin, on a raid in the Caspian (Vasily Surikov, 1906)
Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan is the largest city by the Caspian Sea.
Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian republic of Dagestan, is the third-largest city on the Caspian Sea.
Oil pipelines in the Caspian region. September 2002
Drilling platform "Iran Khazar" in use at a Dragon Oil production platform in the Cheleken field (Turkmenistan).
Caspian region oil and natural gas infrastructure. August 2013.
Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.
Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

It is bounded by Kazakhstan from mid-north to mid-east, Russia from mid-north to mid-west, Azerbaijan to the southwest, Iran to the south and adjacent corners, and Turkmenistan along southern parts of its eastern coast.

Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924

Kazakh language

Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia.

Turkic language of the Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia.

Kazakh Arabic and Latin script in 1924

Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, north-western China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of western Mongolia.