Kazakhstan

Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

- Kazakhstan

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Golden Horde

Originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

Originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

Decisive Golden Horde victory in the Battle of Mohi
Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde.
Jochi Mausoleum, Karagandy Region
Routes taken by Mongol invaders
The Golden Horde army defeats the Ilkhanate at the battle of Terek in 1262. Many of Hulagu's men drowned in the Terek River while withdrawing.
Tode Mongke Khan of the Golden Horde
Regions in the lower Volga inhabited by the descendants of Nogai Khan
The Jochid vassal princes of Galicia-Volhynia contributed troops for invasions of Europe by Nogai Khan and Talabuga.
The division of the Mongol Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde in yellow
The Bulgarian Empire was still tributary to the Mongols in 1308.
Dmitri avenging the death of his father in the ordo (palace) of Uzbeg Khan, killing Yury.
Territories of the Golden Horde under Öz Beg Khan.
The battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Golden Horde in 1363
The Battle of Kulikovo in 1380
Emir Timur and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.
Tokhtamysh besieges Moscow.
The Great stand on the Ugra river, 1480
The Golden Horde and its Rus' tributaries in 1313 under Öz Beg Khan
Alexander Nevsky and a Mongol shaman
Tilework fragments of a palace in Sarai.
Talabuga's coin, dating {{ca.}} 1287–1291 AD.
Jani Beg's coin, dating {{ca.}} 1342–1357 AD.
Berdi Beg's coin minted in Azak, dating {{ca.}} 1357 AD.
Kildibeg's coin minted in Sarai, dating {{ca.}} 1360 AD.
Ordumelik's coin minted in Azak, dating {{ca.}} 1360 AD.
Muscovite coin minted in the name of Abdullah ibn Uzbeg, dating {{ca.}} 1367–1368 or 1369–1370
Dawlat Berdi's coin minted in Kaffa, dating {{ca.}} 1419–1421 or 1428–1432 AD.
Golden Horde raid at Ryazan
Golden Horde raid at Kiev
Golden Horde raid at Kozelsk
Golden Horde raid Vladimir
Golden Horde raid Suzdal
Mongol-Tatar warriors besiege their opponents.
Mongols chase Hungarian king from Mohi, detail from Chronicon Pictum.
The Mongol army captures a Rus' city
Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1285
Edigu's invasion of Rus.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from 16th-century chronicle.
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city
Paiza of Abdullah Khan (r. 1361–70) with Mongolian script
Mongol-Tatar raid
A Rus' prince being punished by the Golden Horde

The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.

Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

One of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936 to 1991 in northern Central Asia.

One of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936 to 1991 in northern Central Asia.

Location of Kazakhstan (red) within the Soviet Union
Demographics of Kazakhstan from 1897 to 1970, with major ethnic groups. Famines of the 1920s and 1930s are marked with shades.
Location of Kazakhstan (red) within the Soviet Union

The Kazakh SSR was renamed the Republic of Kazakhstan on 10 December 1991, which declared its independence six days later, as the last republic to secede from the USSR on 16 December 1991.

Uyghur language

Turkic language, written in a Uyghur Perso-Arabic script, with 10 to 15 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

Turkic language, written in a Uyghur Perso-Arabic script, with 10 to 15 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

A signboard in front of the Military Museum of Xinjiang written in Uyghur (using Arabic script) and Standard Chinese
A sign in Ghulja, Xinjiang, written in Uyghur (using Arabic script) and Chinese (both Hanzi and Pinyin)
Internet café in Khotan oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Address written in Uyghur with the Arabic script.

In addition to being spoken primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China, mainly by the Uyghur people, Uyghur was also spoken by some 300,000 people in Kazakhstan in 1993, some 90,000 in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in 1998, 3,000 in Afghanistan and 1,000 in Mongolia, both in 1982.

Russian settlers in Kazakhstan, 1911. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii

Russians in Kazakhstan

There has been a substantial population of Russian Kazakhstanis since the 19th century.

There has been a substantial population of Russian Kazakhstanis since the 19th century.

Russian settlers in Kazakhstan, 1911. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii
The 19th-century Russian Orthodox church in Almaty is the second-tallest wooden building in the world.
The share Russians by districts and cities of regional and republican subordination Kazakhstan in 2021

The first Rus' traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of modern Kazakhstan territory in the early 16th century, when Cossacks established the forts that later became the cities of Oral (Ural'sk, est. 1520) and Atyrau (Gur'yev).

Clear script on rocks near Almaty

Dzungar people

The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züün'gar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Mongol Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züün'gar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Mongol Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Clear script on rocks near Almaty

The Dzungars who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.

Eurasian Economic Union

Economic union of some post-Soviet states located in Eurasia.

Economic union of some post-Soviet states located in Eurasia.

Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
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Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
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Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Mountain range – Armenia
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Winter – Belarus
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
Lake Ayger – Armenia
Lake Servech – Belarus
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Independent federal socialist state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest and most populous of the Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, until becoming a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, the last two years of the existence of the USSR.

Independent federal socialist state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest and most populous of the Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, until becoming a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, the last two years of the existence of the USSR.

The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1956 and 1991
The Russian SFSR in 1922
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1956 and 1991
The Russian SFSR in 1924
The Russian SFSR in 1929
The Russian SFSR in 1936
The Russian SFSR in 1940
Flag adopted by the Russian SFSR national parliament in 1991
Matryoshka doll taken apart

Within the Soviet Union, the RSFSR bordered the Slavic states: Ukrainian SSR (Ukraine), Belarusian SSR (Belarus), the Baltic states: Estonian SSR (Estonia), Latvian SSR (Latvia) and Lithuanian SSR (Lithuania) (Included in USSR in 1940) to its west and the Azerbaijan SSR (Azerbaijan), Georgian SSR (Georgia) and Kazakh SSR (Kazakhstan) to the south in Central Asia.

Oirats

In the Altai region of Siberia, Xinjiang and Western Mongolia.

In the Altai region of Siberia, Xinjiang and Western Mongolia.

Mongol Empire c. 1207
Fragment of medieval Oirat map
Oirat ceremonial hat
The Zunghar Khanate at 1750 (light-blue color)
This map fragment shows territories of the Zunghar Khanate as in 1706. (Map Collection of the Library of Congress: "Carte de Tartarie" of Guillaume de L'Isle (1675–1726))

The 17th century saw the rise of another Oirat empire in the east, known as the Khanate of Dzungaria, which stretched from the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan, and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia.

Turkistan (city)

Landsat satellite photo of Turkistan

Turkistan (, Türkıstan), is a city and the administrative center of Turkistan Region of Kazakhstan, near the Syr Darya river.

The Aral Sea in 1989 (left) and 2014 (right)

Aral Sea

The Aral Sea in 1989 (left) and 2014 (right)
The Syr Darya sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi) was a primitive species of fish possibly driven to extinction by the shrinkage of the Aral Sea.
The Ukrainian stickleback (Pungitius platygaster) was the only native species of the Aral Sea to survive its reduction and salinization.
The European flounder (Platichthys flesus) was a saltwater fish introduced to the Aral Sea.
The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) was a freshwater fish introduced to the Aral Sea.
Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a former dominant member of the sea's benthic fauna, and has since returned to the North Aral Sea.
Parthenogenic brine shrimp (Artemia parthenogenetica), the dominant crustacean of the South Aral Sea and its fragments.
First Russian boats on the Aral Sea, watercolor by Taras Shevchenko, 1848
1853 map of the Aral Sea
Ships of Imperial Russian Navy's Aral Flotilla in the 1850s
Map including the Aral Sea and surrounding region (DMA, 1979)
Cotton picking near Kyzyl-Kala, Karakalpakstan.
Timeline of shrinking
Cotton picking in Uzbekistan. Cotton is one of the biggest water consuming plants.
Comparison of the North Aral Sea before (below) and after (above) the construction of Dike Kokaral completed in 2005.
Comparison of the North Aral Sea in 2000 and 2011.
"Rebirth" Island joins the mainland in mid-2001.
Aral Sea from space (north at bottom), August 1985
Aral Sea from space (north at bottom), August 1997
Aral Sea from space (north at top), August 2009
Aral Sea in August 2010, with part of the eastern basin reflooded from heavy snowmelt.
Aral Sea completely loses its eastern lobe in August 2014
Aral Sea from space, August 2017. Part of the eastern basin was reflooded from heavy snowmelt in 2015.
April 2018
Aral Sea once again completely loses its eastern lobe in August 2021
Aral Sea dust storm, March 2010
Abandoned ship near Aral, Kazakhstan
A former harbour in the city of Aral
Local Kazakh fisherman harvesting the day's catch

The Aral Sea (Арал теңізі; Орол денгизи; ; Аральское море) was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south which began shrinking in the 1960s and had largely dried up by the 2010s.