Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

- Kazakhstan

265 related topics


East Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th–9th century


East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe, who share a common Russian ancestry, culture, and history.

East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe, who share a common Russian ancestry, culture, and history.

East Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th–9th century
The Baptism of Kievans, by Klavdy Lebedev
The Russian Empire at its greatest extent, including spheres of influence
Ethnic Russians in former Soviet Union states in 1994
The percentage of ethnic Russians in the former Soviet Union according to last censuses
Russian Orthodox Church in Shanghai (c. 1948), whose 25,000-strong Russian community was one of China's largest
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery in Paris, the resting place of many eminent Russian émigrés after 1917
Russian people in Saint-Petersburg.
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
Poster of Battleship Potemkin (1925) by Sergei Eisenstein, which was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Red Square, Moscow, one of the most recognisable symbols of the country
Annunciation Cathedral in Voronezh
thumb|Lipovans in the Danube delta
Russia's Arctic coastline from the White Sea to the Bering Strait had been explored and settled by Pomors, Russian settlers from Novgorod
Terek Cossacks of the north Caucasus guarded the southern frontier
thumb|Lipovans in the Danube delta

In Ukraine (about 8 million), Kazakhstan (about 3.8 million), Belarus (about 785,000), Latvia (about 520,000) with the most Russian settlement out of the Baltic States which includes Lithuania and Estonia, Uzbekistan (about 650,000) and Kyrgyzstan (about 419,000).


Administrative center and largest city of Omsk Oblast, Russia.

Administrative center and largest city of Omsk Oblast, Russia.

The Iron Bridge in 1918
Omsk State Library
Leningrad bridge over the Irtysh
Omsk Dormition Cathedral
Omsk Vrubel Museum
Omsk State Transport University
Tarskaya Street
The fountain on Teatralnaya Ploshad'
Arena Omsk
Blinov Sports and Concerts Complex
Hockey Academy Avangard
Dinamo stadium
Omsk railway station
Omsk Airport
Omsk River Station on the Irtysh

In 1822 Omsk became an administrative capital of Western Siberia and later in 1882 the center of the vast Steppes region (today the northern part of Kazakhstan) and Akmolinsk Oblast, in particular acquiring several churches and cathedrals of various denominations, mosques, a synagogue, the governor-general's mansion, and a military academy.


Fountain in riverside park
Sultanmahmut Toraygirov monument
Amateur racing in downtown Pavlodar on "City Day" 2006
An embankment on the Irtysh River
Pavlodar Central Stadium
Ayimautov Theatre (Kaz. J. Aımaýytov atyndaǵy oblystyq qazaq mýzykaly drama teatry; Rus. Казахский драматический театр имени Аймаутова)
KazMunayGaz (Kaz. QazMunaıGaz-dyń ǵımaraty)
House of Friendship (Kaz. Dostyq úıi; Rus. Дом дружбы)
Train station (Kaz. Pavlodar temir jol bokzaly; Rus. Вокзал)
Central stadium (Kaz. Ortalyq stadıon)
Old city mosque (Kaz. Jóndelgen Pavlodardyń eski meshiti)
Irtysh river view
Abdulfattah Ramazanov mosque
Blagoveschensky cathedral (Russian Orthodox Church)
Catholic church of Saint Thereza

Pavlodar (Павлодар ; Павлодар) is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan and the capital of Pavlodar Region.


Entrance to the Atyrau Airport
Train from Moscow to Almaty staying at the Atyrau Railway Station

Atyrau (Атырау, Atyrau, ; Атырау, ), known until 1991 as Guryev (Гурьев, ), is a city in Kazakhstan and the capital of Atyrau Region.

The Baikonur Cosmodrome's "Gagarin's Start" Soyuz launch pad prior to the rollout of Soyuz TMA-13, 10 October 2008.

Baikonur Cosmodrome

The Baikonur Cosmodrome's "Gagarin's Start" Soyuz launch pad prior to the rollout of Soyuz TMA-13, 10 October 2008.
A U-2 spy plane photograph of R-7 launch pad in Tyuratam, taken on 5 August 1957.
A Soyuz rocket is erected into position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome's Pad 1/5 (Gagarin's Start) on 24 March 2009. The rocket launched the crew of Expedition 19 and a spaceflight participant on 26 March 2009.
A Soyuz TMA-16 launch vehicle being transported to launchpad at Baikonur in 2009.
Buran at Baikonur Museum

The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, ; Космодром Байконур, ) is a spaceport in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.


Nurken Abdirov Street at the corner of Gogol Street.
Russian Orthodox Church in Karaganda
FC Shakhter Karagandy players
Russian Kazakhstani athlete Dmitriy Karpov

Karaganda or Qaraghandy (Қарағанды/Qarağandy, ; Караганда, ) is the capital of Karaganda Region in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The various facilities grouped inside the Semipalatinsk Test Site

Semipalatinsk Test Site

The primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons.

The primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons.

The various facilities grouped inside the Semipalatinsk Test Site
Crater from a USSR nuclear test at Semipalatinsk. 2008 photo
Console from the old Soviet test site. 2009 photo
55-ton Cardwell drill rig being loaded onto a USAF C-5 Galaxy aircraft for shipment to Semipalatinsk in support of the Joint Verification Experiment, 1988

It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan (then the Kazakh SSR), south of the valley of the Irtysh River.

Amanat (political party)

President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who led Nur Otan from its foundation in 1999 until 2022
Nur Otan headquarters in Nur-Sultan
Logo used from 2019–2022
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev in 2020, who led Nur Otan, now Amanat, from January 2022 until April 2022
Chairman Erlan Qoşanov in 2001, who led Amanat, from April 2022

Amanat (Аманат), known as Nur Otan (Нұр Отан) until 2022, is a big tent political party in Kazakhstan.



Oskemen (Өскемен ), or Ust-Kamenogorsk (Усть-Каменого́рск), is the administrative center of East Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan.

Organization of Turkic States

The Turkic-speaking areas
7th Summit of Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States in Baku

The Organization of Turkic States, formerly called the Turkic Council or the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States, is an international organization comprising prominent independent Turkic countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Uzbekistan.