Medication primarily used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia.- Ketamine
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NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Some NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, dextromethorphan (DXM), phencyclidine (PCP), methoxetamine (MXE), and nitrous oxide (N2O), are sometimes used as recreational drugs, for their dissociative, hallucinogenic, and euphoriant properties.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (aka Essential Medicines List or EML ), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen which distort perception of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and/or self.
Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams" ) during and after anaesthesia.
Hallucinogens are a large and diverse class of psychoactive drugs that can produce altered states of consciousness characterized by substantial alterations in thought, mood, and perception.
Antiglutamatergics (NMDA receptor antagonists or classical dissociatives) such as "laughing gas" (nitrous oxide) and ketamine
Short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and a lack of memory for events.
It is also often used in combination with ketamine with minimal side effects.
Medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of either intravenous or inhalational general anaesthetic medications, often in combination with an analgesic and neuromuscular blocking agent.
Halothane has been found to be a GABA agonist, and ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist.
Term used in clinical psychiatry to describe a condition that affects people with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not respond adequately to a course of appropriate antidepressant medication within a certain time.
Some off label antidepressants are low dose ketamine and highly serotonergic catecholamines (including very controlled use of MDMA in the treatment of PTSD and crippling depression/anxiety).
Reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Examples of drugs which can be used for sedation include isoflurane, diethyl ether, propofol, etomidate, ketamine, pentobarbital, lorazepam and midazolam.
Fluid pressure inside the eye.
Ketamine also increases IOP.
Use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Since the early 2000s, medical professionals have acknowledged and addressed the problem of the increasing consumption of alcoholic drinks and club drugs (such as MDMA, cocaine, rohypnol, GHB, ketamine, PCP, LSD, and methamphetamine) associated with rave culture among adolescents and young adults in the Western world.