Keypunch

key punchIBM 029card punchesdirect data entry (DDE)IBM 016IBM 024IBM 026keypunch machine026 keypunchan IBM keypunch
A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.wikipedia
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Unit record equipment

Hollerithpunched card machinesunit record machines
For Hollerith machines and other unit record machines the resulting punched cards contained data to be processed by those machines.
To process these punched cards, sometimes referred to as "Hollerith cards", he invented the keypunch, sorter, and tabulator unit record machines.

Computer keyboard

keyboardkeyboardsalphanumeric keyboard
These often resembled small desks with keyboards similar to those on typewriters and were equipped with hoppers for blank cards and stackers for punched cards.
While typewriters are the definitive ancestor of all key-based text entry devices, the computer keyboard as a device for electromechanical data entry and communication derives largely from the utility of two devices: teleprinters (or teletypes) and keypunches.

Punched card input/output

card punchcard readercard readers
For computers equipped with a punched card input/output device the resulting punched cards were either data or programs directing the computer's operation.
Businesses were familiar with storing data on punched cards and keypunch machines were widely employed.

Data entry clerk

data entrytypistre-keying
There was a great demand for keypunch operators, usually women, who worked full-time on keypunch and verifier machines, often in large keypunch departments with dozens or hundreds of other operators, all performing data input. In the 1950s, Remington Rand introduced the UNITYPER, which enabled data entry directly to magnetic tape for UNIVAC systems.
The invention of punched card data processing in the 1890s created a demand for many workers, typically women, to run keypunch machines.

Bit bucket

The small pieces punched out by a keypunch fell into a chad box, or (at IBM) chip box, or bit bucket.
Originally, the bit bucket was the container on Teletype machines or IBM key punch machines into which chad from the paper tape punch or card punch was deposited; the formal name is "chad box" or (at IBM) "chip box".

Two pass verification

double data entry
In many data processing applications, the punched cards were verified by keying exactly the same data a second time, checking to see if the second keying and the punched data were the same (known as two pass verification).
Two-pass verification, also called double data entry, is a data entry quality control method that was originally employed when data records were entered onto sequential 80-column Hollerith cards with a keypunch.

George Cogar

Mohawk Data Sciences
Mohawk Data Sciences subsequently produced an improved magnetic tape encoder in 1965, which was somewhat successfully marketed as a keypunch replacement.
George R. Cogar (born 1932-missing 1983) was the head of the UNIVAC 1004 electronic design team code named the "bumblebee project", and later the "barn project", and co-founder of Mohawk Data Sciences Corporation, a Herkimer, N.Y.-based multimillion-dollar business built largely on his invention of the Data Recorder magnetic tape encoder, which was introduced in 1965 and eliminated the need for keypunches and punched cards by direct encoding on tape.

Inforex 1300 Systems

Inforex
The rise of microprocessors and inexpensive computer terminals led to the development of additional key-to-tape and key-to-disk systems from smaller companies such as Inforex and Pertec.
The company was founded by ex-IBM engineers to develop direct data entry systems that allowed information to be entered on terminals and stored directly on disk drives, replacing punched cards and keypunch machines which had been the dominant tools for data entry since the turn of the twentieth century.

UNITYPER

In the 1950s, Remington Rand introduced the UNITYPER, which enabled data entry directly to magnetic tape for UNIVAC systems.
It was an early direct data entry system manufactured by Remington Rand in the 1950s.

IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines Corporation
The small pieces punched out by a keypunch fell into a chad box, or (at IBM) chip box, or bit bucket.
Famous inventions and developments by IBM include: the Automated teller machine (ATM), Dynamic random access memory (DRAM), the electronic keypunch, the financial swap, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, RISC, the SABRE airline reservation system, SQL, the Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code, and the virtual machine.

Chad (paper)

chadhanging chadchads
The small pieces punched out by a keypunch fell into a chad box, or (at IBM) chip box, or bit bucket.

Pertec Computer

PertecPertec Computer Corporation
The rise of microprocessors and inexpensive computer terminals led to the development of additional key-to-tape and key-to-disk systems from smaller companies such as Inforex and Pertec.
This line was opened in the first half of the 1970s by the Pertec PCC-2100 data entry system, which was essentially different from the PCC-2000 mentioned above.

Herman Hollerith

HollerithHollerith, HermanHermann Hollerith
Herman Hollerith's first device for punching cards from the 1890s was ...any ordinary ticket punch, cutting a round hole 3/16 of an inch in diameter.
He invented the first automatic card-feed mechanism and the first keypunch.

IBM Kanji System

3270 Kanji Display TerminalIBM 029 Kanji KeypunchIBM Japanese Language Processing System
Introduced in 1971, the IBM 029 Kanji Keypunch was able to punch 2950 Kanji characters, the keypunch operator's left hand selecting one of 15 shift keys and the right hand selecting one of 240 Kanji characters for that shift.

Pantograph

eidographpantographicpantographs
Hollerith soon developed a more accurate and simpler to use Keyboard Punch, using a pantograph to link a punch mechanism to a guide pointer that an operator would place over the appropriate mark in a 12 by 20 matrix to line up a manual punch over the correct hole in one of 20 columns.
Herman Hollerith's "Keyboard punch" used for the 1890 U.S. Census was a pantograph design and sometimes referred to as "The Pantograph Punch".

Fortran

Fortran 77Fortran 90FORTRAN IV
Many programming languages, such as FORTRAN, RPG, and the IBM Assembler, coded operations in specific card columns, such as 1, 10, 16, 36, and 72.
Before the development of disk files, text editors and terminals, programs were most often entered on a keypunch keyboard onto 80-column punched cards, one line to a card.

List of IBM products

IBM 5153See products listingbusiness intelligence and performance management products
Machines manufactured prior to 1928 were, in some cases, retrofitted with 80-column card readers and/or punches thus there existed machines with pre-1928 dates of manufacture that contain 1928 technology.

Punched card

punched cardspunch cardpunch cards
For Hollerith machines and other unit record machines the resulting punched cards contained data to be processed by those machines.
Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data.

Computer programming in the punched card era

the punched card era4GL deckcards
These forms were then taken by keypunch operators, who using a keypunch machine such as the IBM 029 punched the actual deck.

Data entry

Data Entry Keyers
Saying that something would be keypunched (to keypunch as a verb), now that the actual device called a keypunch has become obsolete, refers to data entry.
Data entry using keypunches was related to the concept of Batch processing - there was no immediate feedback.

Raymond Loewy

LoewyRaymond Loewy and AssociatesRaymond Loewy Associates
Raymond Loewy, industrial designer of "streamlined" motifs who also designed railway passenger cars of the 1930s and 1940s, did the award-winning external design of the 026/024 Card Punches for IBM.

25L6

35L6
Logic consisted of diodes, 25L6 vacuum tubes and relays.
Computer equipment used this tube as a relay driver or to run the solenoids in key punch machines.

Program (machine)

programmableprogrammable machinesprogram
For Jacquard looms, the resulting punched cards were joined together to form a paper tape, called a "chain", containing a program that, when read by a loom, directed its operation.

Data (computing)

datacomputer datadata representation
For Hollerith machines and other unit record machines the resulting punched cards contained data to be processed by those machines.

Data processing

processingdata-processingprocessing of data
In many data processing applications, the punched cards were verified by keying exactly the same data a second time, checking to see if the second keying and the punched data were the same (known as two pass verification).