Khazar Khaganate, 650–850
Khazar Khaganate and surrounding states, c. 820 (area of direct Khazar control in dark blue, sphere of influence in purple).
Trade routes of the Black Sea region, 8th–11th centuries
Site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel (aerial photo from excavations conducted by Mikhail Artamonov in the 1950s).
Sviatoslav I of Kiev (in boat), destroyer of the Khazar Khaganate.
The Pontic steppes, c. 1015 (areas in blue possibly still under Khazar control).
Seal discovered in excavations at Khazar sites. However, rather than having been made by Jews, these appear to be shamanistic sun discs.
The Khazar "Moses coin" found in the Spillings Hoard and dated c. 800. It is inscribed with "Moses is the messenger of God" instead of the usual Muslim text "Muhammad is the messenger of God".
The 10th century Kievian Letter has Old Turkic (Orkhon) inscription word-phrase OKHQURÜM, "I read (this or it)".

The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people that in the late 6th-century AD established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia, southern Ukraine, Crimea, and Kazakhstan.

- Khazars

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European Russia

Western and most populated part of Russia, which is geographically situated in Europe, as opposed to its sparsely populated and vastly large eastern part, which is in Asia, encompassing the entire northern region of the continent.

Russia in Europe and Asia with current administrative divisions (de facto boundaries)
Federal districts of Russia

The historical population of European Russia was composed of Slavic, Finnic, Germanic, Turkic, North Caucasian, Baltic, Khazarian and Norse peoples.

Kievan Rus'

State in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.

An approximate ethno-linguistic map of Kievan Rus' in the 9th century: Five Volga Finnic groups of the Merya, Mari, Muromians, Meshchera and Mordvins are shown as surrounded by the Slavs to the west; the three Finnic groups of the Veps, Ests and Chuds, and Indo-European Balts to the northwest; the Permians to the northeast the (Turkic) Bulghars and Khazars to the southeast and south.
A map of later Kievan Rus' (after the death of Yaroslav I in 1054)
The Invitation of the Varangians by Viktor Vasnetsov: Rurik and his brothers Sineus and Truvor arrive at the lands of the Ilmen Slavs.
Rus', 1015–1113
East-Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th–9th centuries
The Volga trade route (red), the "route from the Varangians to the Greeks" (purple) and other trade routes of the 8th–11th centuries (orange)
Princess Olga's avenge to the Drevlians, Radziwiłł Chronicle
Madrid Skylitzes, meeting between John Tzimiskes and Sviatoslav
Rogneda of Polotsk, Vladimir I of Kiev and Izyaslav of Polotsk
Baptism of Saint Prince Vladimir, by Viktor Vasnetsov, in the St Volodymyr's Cathedral
Ivan Eggink's painting represents Vladimir listening to the Orthodox priests, while the papal envoy stands aside in discontent.
The Golden Gate, Kyiv
The principalities of the later Kievan Rus (after the death of Yaroslav I in 1054)
The Nativity, a Kievan (possibly Galician) illumination from the Gertrude Psalter
Map of 1139 by Joachim Lelewel (1865)
Lilac borders: Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, one of the successor states of Kievan Rus'
Administering justice in Kievan Rus, by Ivan Bilibin
Ship burial of a Rus' chieftain as described by the Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan, who visited north-eastern Europe in the 10th century. Henryk Siemiradzki (1883)
The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Polovtsy, by Viktor Vasnetsov
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan
Model of the original Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev; used on modern 2 hryvni of Ukraine
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk (rebuilt in the mid-18th century after destruction by Russian army)
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, mid-11th century
Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir, 1160
Map of 8th- to 9th-century Rus' by Leonard Chodzko (1861)
Map of 9th-century Rus' by Antoine Philippe Houze (1844)
Map of 9th-century Rus' by F. S. Weller (1893)
Map of Rus' in Europe in 1000 (1911)
Map of Rus' in 1097 (1911)
Fragment of the 1154 Tabula Rogeriana by Muhammad al-Idrisi

He extended his control from Novgorod south along the Dnieper river valley to protect trade from Khazar incursions from the east, and moved his capital to the more strategic Kiev.

Sviatoslav I

Sviatoslav I by Eugene Lanceray (1886)
Olga of Kiev, who served as regent during her son's youth
Illustration of Sviatoslav wearing a vyshyvanka, by Fedor Solntsev
Sviatoslav's mother, Olga, with her escort in Constantinople, a miniature from the late 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Sviatoslav I in the Tsarsky Titulyarnik, 1672
The Kievan Rus' at the beginning of Sviatoslav's reign (in red), showing his sphere of influence to 972 (in orange)
Sviatoslav's Council of War by Boris Chorikov
Sviatoslav invading Bulgaria, Manasses Chronicle
Pursuit of Sviatoslav's warriors by the Byzantine army, a miniature from 11th century chronicles of John Skylitzes.
Madrid Skylitzes, meeting between John Tzimiskes and Sviatoslav.
Siege of Durostorum in Manasses Chronicle
The Death of Sviatoslav by Boris Chorikov
Ivan Akimov. Sviatoslav's Return from the Danube to His Family in Kiev (1773)
Monument to Sviatoslav I in Kiev, Ukraine. The authors are Boris Krylov and Oles Sydoruk.

Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Святослав Игоревич; Святослав Ігорович; 943 – 26 March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav, was a Grand Prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.

Volga Bulgaria

Historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama River, in what is now European Russia.

Volga Bulgaria in the Eurasian world of AD 1200
Devil's Tower in Yelabuga, 12th century
Adzes, Volga Bulgaria, 13-14 century
Pottery of Volga Bulgaria, 10-14 century
Necklaces, Volga Bulgaria, 10-14 century

About 630 they founded Old Great Bulgaria which was destroyed by the Khazars in 668.

Don Cossacks

Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) or Donians (донцы), are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

Flag of the Don Cossacks
Don cossacks in Paris in 1814
1915 drawing from The War Illustrated showing a charging Don Cossack. The figure is portrayed in peacetime dress uniform
Percentage of depopulation during the Soviet famine of 1932–33. Formerly Don Cossack lands are on right.
A monument to Don Cossacks in Lugansk. In Russian: "To the sons of glory and freedom"
Emblem of registered Don cossacks
Coat of Arms of Don Cossacks
A Cossack from Don area 1821. An illustration from Fyodor Solntsev, 1869
General of Don Cossack in the early 1800s

Subsequently, the area was inhabited by the Khazars and the Polovtsians.


Ancient ethnic and state Turko-Mongolic religion originating in the Eurasian steppes, based on folk shamanism, monotheistic at the imperial level, and generally centered around the titular sky god Tengri.

Peak of Khan Tengri at sunset.
The earliest known depiction of a Siberian shaman, drawn by the Dutch explorer Nicolaes Witsen, who wrote an account of his travels among Samoyedic- and Tungusic-speaking peoples in 1692. Witsen labeled the illustration as a "Priest of the Devil", giving this figure clawed feet to express what he thought were demonic qualities.
Russian postcard based on a photo taken in 1908 by S. I. Borisov, showing a female shaman, of probable Khakas ethnicity.
Buryat shaman performing a libation.
Tengri in Old Turkic script (written from right to left as Тeŋiri).
Kul Tigin monument, 8th century.
Seal from Güyüg Khan's letter to Pope Innocent IV, 1246. The first four words, from top to bottom, left to right, read "möngke ṭngri-yin küčündür" – "Under the power of the eternal heaven". The words "Tngri" (Tengri) and "zrlg" (zarlig) exhibit vowel-less archaism.
A traditional Kyrgyz(Kazakh) yurt in 1860 in the Syr Darya Oblast. Note the lack of a compression ring at the top.
Arghun Khan's 1289 letter to Philip the Fair, in classical Mongolian script. The letter was given to the French king by Buscarel of Gisolfe.
1290 letter from Arghun to Pope Nicholas IV
Mount Burkhan Khaldun is a place where Genghis Khan regularly prayed to Tengri.
White Sülde Tngri temple in the town of Uxin Banner in Inner Mongolia, China.
Nihal Atsız (1905–1975), one of the first ideologists of modern Tengrism.
Tengrist "Aiyy Faith" temple House of Purification (2002) in Yakutsk, Russia, taken away by the authorities.
One of main symbols of Tengrism.
Mongolian shamanism Temdeg symbol.
Shangrak—top of the yurt—symbol of Tengrism.
Belukha Mountain (Üch-Sümer) in Altai.
Banner of Daichin Tengri carried into battle during the Napoleonic Wars
Serebzhab Tyumen (seated) carried the Banner of Daichin Tengri into the Battle of Fère-Champenoise (1814)
Baron Ungern was called the God of War (Daichin Tengri) by certain Mongols

It was the prevailing religion of the Turks, Mongols, Bulgars, Xiongnu, Huns and possibly the Hungarians, and the state religion of several medieval states: First Turkic Khaganate, Western Turkic Khaganate, Eastern Turkic Khaganate, Old Great Bulgaria, First Bulgarian Empire, Volga Bulgaria, and Eastern Tourkia (Khazaria), Mongol Empire.

Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url= |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.


Western Turkic Khaganate

Turkic khaganate in Eurasia, formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century after the split of the Turkic Khaganate (founded in the 6th century on the Mongolian Plateau by the Ashina clan) into a western and an eastern Khaganate.

Greatest extent of the Western Turkic Khaganate after the Battle of Bukhara (brown), and their southern expansion as the Tokhara Yabghus and Turk Shahis (ochre)
Western Turk officer attending the reception of ambassadors by king Varkhuman of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE. The Turks had a Mongoloid appearance.
An early Turk Shahi ruler named Sri Ranasrikari "The Lord who brings excellence through war" (Brahmi script). In this realistic portrait, he wears the Turkic double-lapel caftan. Late 7th to early 8th century CE.
Map of the six major protectorates during Tang dynasty.
Turkic officers during a audience with king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand. They are recognizable by their long plaits.
A Turkic nobleman with long plaited hair, from Tashkent. Coin of the Turkic dynasties of Chach. Circa 605-630 CE.
Tang dynasty military campaigns against the Western Turks
Federal symbol of the Western Turks circa 650 CE. Eleven poles symbolizing the five Dulu tribes, the five Nushibi tribes, with the central pole symbolizing the rulership of a Yabghu-Qaghan. Afrasiab murals.
Western Turk attendants and officers, all recognizable by their long plaits, at the court of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.
Seated Turkic attendants, at the court of Samarkand. Afrasiab murals, 7th century CE.
A Turk (center) mourning the Buddha, Maya Cave (Cave 224), Kizil Caves. He is cutting his forehead with a knife, a practice of self-mutilation also known among the Scythians.

If trade on this route later increased (uncertain) it would have benefited Khorezm and the Black Sea cities and might have had something to do with the later rise of the Khazars and Rus' people.


For a specific analysis of the population of Hungary, see Demographics of Hungary.

The seven Magyar chieftains arriving at the Carpathian Basin. Detail from Árpád Feszty's cyclorama titled the Arrival of the Hungarians.
Map of the presumptive Hungarian prehistory
Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin, from the Chronicon Pictum, 1360.
Hungarian raids in the 9–10th century
Population growth of Hungarians (900–1980)
Traditional Hungarian costumes, 1822
Magyars (Hungarians) in Hungary, 1890 census
The Treaty of Trianon: Kingdom of Hungary lost 72% of its land and 3.3 million people of Hungarian ethnicity.
The place of origin for the regional groups of Hungarians in the conquest period according to Kinga Éry
Kniezsa's (1938) view on the ethnic map of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th century, based on toponyms. Kniezsa's view has been criticized by many scholars, because of its non-compliance with later archaeological and onomastics research, but his map is still regularly cited in modern reliable sources. One of the most prominent critics of this map was Emil Petrovici.<ref>Ethnic Continuity in the Carpatho-Danubian Area, Elemér Illyés</ref>
The "Red Map",<ref>{{cite web|url=|date=9 May 2017||title=Browse Hungary's detailed ethnographic map made for the Treaty of Trianon online}}</ref> based on the 1910 census. Regions with population density below 20 persons/km{{sup|2}} (51.8 persons/sq. mi.)<ref>Spatiul istoric si etnic romanesc, Editura Militara, Bucuresti, 1992</ref> are left blank and the corresponding population is represented in the nearest region with population density above that limit. Red color to mark Hungarians and light purple color to mark Walachians.
Regions where Hungarian is used as the main language to communicate.{{Relevance inline|date=July 2017|reason= the article is about the people, not about the language}}
Hungarians dressed in folk costumes in Southern Transdanubia, Hungary
Vojvodina Hungarians women's national costume
Kalotaszeg folk Costume in Transylvania, Romania
The Hungarian Puszta
The Turul, the mythical bird of Hungary
thumb|Welcome sign in Latin and in Old Hungarian script for the town of Vonyarcvashegy, Hungary
Csárdás folk dance in Skorenovac (Székelykeve), Vojvodina, Serbia

The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate.


Khazar Khaganate, 650–850

The Kabars (Κάβαροι), also known as Qavars (Qabars) or Khavars were Khazar rebels who joined the Magyar confederation possibly in the 9th century as well as the Rus' Khaganate.