Khedivate of Egypt

EgyptEgyptianKhedivateEgypt and SudanKhediveKhedive of EgyptOttoman Egypt and SudanEgyptian KhedivateOttoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan1867–1914
The Khedivate of Egypt was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.wikipedia
401 Related Articles

History of Egypt under the British

EgyptBritish occupation of EgyptBritish Egypt
The United Kingdom invaded and took control in 1882.
During this time the Khedivate of Egypt remained an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire, and the British occupation had no legal basis but constituted a de facto protectorate over the country.

Egypt Eyalet

EgyptEyalet of EgyptOttoman Egypt
Upon the conquest of the Sultanate of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, the country was governed as an Ottoman eyalet (province).
It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate in 1867.

Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire

tributary statesvassal statevassal states
The Khedivate of Egypt was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.

Bashi-bazouk

bashi-bazouksbashi-bozoukbashi-bozuk
Amid these disturbances, Husrev Pasha attempted to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks (soldiers) without pay.
An attempt by Husrev Pasha to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks in favor of his regular forces began the rioting which led to the establishment of Muhammad Ali's Khedivate of Egypt.

Nubia

NubianChristian Nubiaancient Nubians
Nubia at once submitted, the Shaigiya tribe immediately beyond the province of Dongola were defeated, the remnant of the Mamluks dispersed, and Sennar was reduced without a battle.
Nubia was again united with the Khedivate of Egypt in the 19th century.

Massawa

MassauaMassowahMasawa
Khartoum was founded at this time, and in the following years the rule of the Egyptians was greatly extended and control of the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa obtained.
As a historical and important port for many centuries, it was ruled by a succession of polities, including the Aksumite Empire, the Umayyad Caliphate, various Beja sultanates, Abyssinia, the Ottoman Empire, and the Khedivate of Egypt.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The United Kingdom invaded and took control in 1882.
Egypt, which had been occupied by Britain since 1882, and a British protectorate since 1914, became independent in 1922, although British troops remained stationed there until 1956.

Sa'id of Egypt

Sa'id PashaSa'idSaid Pasha
Abbas was assassinated by two of his slaves in 1854, and Muhammad Ali's fourth son, Sa'id, succeeded him.
Mohamed Sa'id Pasha (محمد سعيد باشا, Mehmed Said Paşa, March 17, 1822 – January 17, 1863) was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence.

Tewfik Pasha

TawfiqTewfikKhedive Tewfik
A large military demonstration in September 1881 forced the Khedive Tewfiq to dismiss his Prime Minister.
Mohamed Tewfik Pasha (محمد توفيق باشا Muḥammad Tawfīq Bāshā; April 30 or November 15, 1852 – January 7, 1892), also known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.

Isma'il Pasha

Khedive IsmailIsmail PashaIsma'il
Sa'id ruled for only nine years, and his nephew Isma'il, another grandson of Muhammad Ali, became wali.
However, Isma'il's policies placed the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt and Sudan (1867–1914) in severe debt, leading to the sale of the country's shares in the Suez Canal Company to the United Kingdom, and his ultimate toppling from power at British hands.

Mahdist War

Sudan CampaignMahdistDongola Expedition
The Mahdist rebels had seized the regional capital of Kordofan and annihilated two British-led expeditions sent to quell it.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a war of the late 19th century between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.

Muhammad Ahmad

MahdiMuhammad Ahmedthe Mahdi
Meanwhile, a religious rebellion had broken out in the Sudan, led by Muhammad Ahmed, who proclaimed himself the Mahdi.
His proclamation came during a period of widespread resentment among the Sudanese population towards the oppressive policies of the Turco-Egyptian rulers and was supported by the messianic belief popular among the various Sudanese religious sects of the time.

Abbas II of Egypt

Abbas IIAbbas Hilmi IIAbbas Hilmi Pasha
British occupation ended nominally with the deposition of the last khedive Abbas II on 5 November 1914 and the establishment of a British protectorate, with the installation of sultan Hussein Kamel on 19 December 1914.
He was still in college in Vienna when he assumed the throne of the Khedivate of Egypt upon the sudden death of his father, 8 January 1892.

Hussein Kamel of Egypt

Hussein KamelSultan Hussein KamelHussein Kamel Pasha
British occupation ended nominally with the deposition of the last khedive Abbas II on 5 November 1914 and the establishment of a British protectorate, with the installation of sultan Hussein Kamel on 19 December 1914.
This brought to an end the de jure Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt, which had been largely nominal since Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in 1805.

Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha

Husrev PashaHüsrev PashaMehmed Hüsrev Pasha
Following the defeat of the French, the Porte assigned Husrev Pasha as the new Wāli (governor) of Egypt, tasking him to kill or imprison the surviving Egyptian Mamluk beys.
He had seen the fez as worn occasionally by Tunisians and Algerians during a Mediterranean journey and introduced it to the Ottoman capital, from which the custom spread to all Ottoman lands including the nominal dependency of Egypt.

Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer

Lord CromerEvelyn BaringSir Evelyn Baring
Because of his efforts to gain economic independence from the European powers, Isma'il became unpopular with many British and French diplomats, including Evelyn Baring and Alfred Milner, who claimed that he was "ruining Egypt."
The 'Urabi Revolt, led by Ahmed 'Urabi, a rising Egyptian colonel, endangered the Khedivate.

'Urabi revolt

Urabi Revolt‘Urabi Revoltnationalist uprising
The 'Urabi revolt, also known as the 'Urabi Revolution, was a nationalist uprising in Egypt from 1879 to 1882.

British Conquest of Egypt (1882)

Anglo-Egyptian War1882 Anglo-Egyptian WarEgypt 1882
It ended a nationalist uprising against the Khedive Tewfik Pasha.

Suez Canal

Suez Canal ZoneSuezCanal Zone
A British naval bombardment of Alexandria had little effect on the opposition which led to the landing of a British expeditionary force at both ends of the Suez Canal in August 1882.
In 1854 and 1856, Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained a concession from Sa'id Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, to create a company to construct a canal open to ships of all nations.

Emirate of Harar

List of emirs of HararEmiremir of Harar
In 1866 the polity occupied the Emirate of Harar.

Khedive

Khedive of EgyptkhedivalKhedivate
Although Muhammad Ali had only been granted the title of wali, he proclaimed himself khedive, or hereditary viceroy, early on during his rule.

Flag of Egypt

EgyptEgyptian flagFlag of the United Arab Republic
However, throughout his reign, and that of his sons and grandsons, Egypt enjoyed virtual independence as a Khedivate.

Battle of Tell El Kebir

Battle of Tel el-KebirBattle of Tel-el-KebirTel-el-Kebir
The British army landed in Egypt soon afterwards and defeated Arabi's army in the Battle of Tel el-Kebir.

Battle of Atbara

AtbaraAtbarahbattle
The Mahdists were defeated in the battles of Abu Hamid and Atbara.

Siege of Khartoum

Battle of KhartoumKhartoumfall of Khartoum
The fall of Khartoum resulted in the proclamation of an Islamic state, ruled over first by the Mahdi and then by his successor Khalifa Abdullahi.