Khmer language

KhmerCambodianOld KhmerKhmer (Cambodian)Central KhmerkhmKhmer wordKhmer-languageCambodian languageKhmer script
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiăsaa khmae, dialectal khmæ or khmɛɛr, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiăsaa ) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.wikipedia
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Thai language

ThaiThai:Central Thai
The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cham, all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia. This has resulted in a distinct accent influenced by the surrounding tonal languages Lao and Thai, lexical differences, and phonemic differences in both vowels and distribution of consonants.
Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer.

Angkor

Angkor templesAngkor civilizationAngkor Kingdom
It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and by a significant margin Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan.
Angkor (អង្គរ, capital city) was the capital city of the Khmer Empire, also known as Yasodharapura (Khmer: យសោធរបុរៈ; यशोधरपुर) and flourished from approximately the 9th to 15th centuries.

Khmer Empire

KhmerAngkorAngkorian
Outside of Cambodia, three distinct dialects are spoken by ethnic Khmers native to areas that were historically part of the Khmer Empire.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.

Northern Khmer dialect

Northern KhmerKhmer SurinNorthern Khmer language
The Northern Khmer dialect is spoken by over a million Khmers in the southern regions of Northeast Thailand and is treated by some linguists as a separate language.
Northern Khmer, also called Surin Khmer (ខ្មែរសុរិន្ទ - Khmer Soren), is the dialect of the Khmer language spoken by approximately 1.4 million Khmer native to the Thai provinces of Surin, Sisaket, Buriram and Roi Et as well as those that have migrated from this region into Cambodia.

Middle Khmer

Khmer Krom, or Southern Khmer, is the first language of the Khmer of Vietnam while the Khmer living in the remote Cardamom mountains speak a very conservative dialect that still displays features of the Middle Khmer language.
Middle Khmer is the historical stage of the Khmer language as it existed between the 14th and 18th centuries, spanning the period between Old Khmer and the modern language.

Mon language

MonOld MonMon alphabet
It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and by a significant margin Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan. Austroasiatic, which also includes Mon, Vietnamese and Munda, has been studied since 1856 and was first proposed as a language family in 1907.
Mon, like the related Khmer language, but unlike most languages in mainland Southeast Asia, is not tonal.

Vietnamese language

VietnameseVietnamese nameVietnamese-language
The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cham, all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese). Austroasiatic, which also includes Mon, Vietnamese and Munda, has been studied since 1856 and was first proposed as a language family in 1907.
Early linguistic work some 150 years ago already classified Vietnamese as belonging to the Mon–Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family (a family that also includes Khmer, spoken in Cambodia, as well as various smaller and/or regional languages, such as the Munda and Khasi languages spoken in eastern India, and others in Laos, southern China and parts of Thailand).

Funan

Kingdom of FunanFunan KingdomFunan Empire
It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and by a significant margin Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan.
Funan is known in the modern languages of the region as វ្នំ Vnom (Old Khmer) or នគរភ្នំ Nokor Phnom (Khmer), ฟูนาน (Funan) (Thai), and Phù Nam (Vietnamese), however, the name Funan is not found in any texts of local origin from the period, and it is not known what name the people of Funan gave to their polity.

Khmer Krom

Khmerdelimitation of the Kingdom of CambodiaKampuchea Krom
Khmer Krom, or Southern Khmer, is the first language of the Khmer of Vietnam while the Khmer living in the remote Cardamom mountains speak a very conservative dialect that still displays features of the Middle Khmer language.
In Khmer, Krom means "low" or "below".

Isan

Northeastern Thailandnortheast Thailandnortheastern
The Northern Khmer dialect is spoken by over a million Khmers in the southern regions of Northeast Thailand and is treated by some linguists as a separate language.
Khmer, the language of Cambodia, is widely spoken in areas along the Cambodian border: Buriram, Surin, and Sisaket.

Khmer script

KhmerKhmer alphabetKhmer alphabet – Unicode
The language has been written in the Khmer script, an abugida descended from the Brahmi script via the southern Indian Pallava script, since at least the seventh century.
The Khmer script is an abugida (alphasyllabary) script used to write the Khmer language (the official language of Cambodia).

Austroasiatic languages

AustroasiaticMon–KhmerMon-Khmer
It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and by a significant margin Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese).
Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer and Mon have a long-established recorded history and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively).

Munda languages

MundaMunda languageMunda, Munda Patar
Austroasiatic, which also includes Mon, Vietnamese and Munda, has been studied since 1856 and was first proposed as a language family in 1907.
They constitute a branch of the Austroasiatic language family, which means they are related to languages such as Mon and Khmer languages and Vietnamese, as well as minority languages in Thailand and Laos and the minority Mangic languages of South China.

Phnom Penh

Phnom Penh, CambodiaPhnom PehnPhnom Penh Municipality
Notable variations are found in speakers from Phnom Penh (Cambodia's capital city), the rural Battambang area, the areas of Northeast Thailand adjacent to Cambodia such as Surin province, the Cardamom Mountains, and southern Vietnam.
First recorded a century after it is said to have taken place, the legend of the founding of Phnom Penh tells of a local woman, Penh (commonly referred to as Daun Penh ("Grandmother Penh" or "Old Lady Penh") in Khmer), living at Chaktomuk, the future Phnom Penh.

Minor syllable

sesquisyllabicsesquisyllableminor pre-syllables
Words are stressed on the final syllable, hence many words conform to the typical Mon–Khmer pattern of a stressed syllable preceded by a minor syllable.
The minor syllable may be of the form or, with a reduced vowel, as in colloquial Khmer, or of the form with no vowel at all, as in Mlabri "navel" (minor syllable ) and "underneath" (minor syllable ), and Khasi kyndon "rule" (minor syllable ), syrwet "sign" (minor syllable ), kylla "transform" (minor syllable ), symboh "seed" (minor syllable ) and tyngkai "conserve" (minor syllable ).

Sprachbund

linguistic arealanguage areaareal
The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cham, all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia.
Similarly, the unrelated Khmer (Mon–Khmer), Cham (Austronesian) and Lao (Kadai) languages have almost identical vowel systems.

Subject–verb–object

SVOsubject-verb-objectSVO word order
General word order is subject–verb–object, and modifiers follow the word they modify.
Languages regarded as SVO include: Albanian, Arabic dialects, Assyrian, Bosnian, Chinese, English, Estonian, Finnish (but see below), French, Ganda, Greek, Hausa, Icelandic (with the V2 restriction), Igbo, Italian, Javanese, Khmer, Latvian, Macedonian, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Modern Hebrew, Polish, Portuguese, Quiche, Reo Rapa, Romanian, Russian (but see below), Slovene, Spanish, Swahili, Thai and Lao, Ukrainian (but see below), Vietnamese, Yoruba and Zulu.

Consonant cluster

consonant clustersclusterscluster
The script's form and use has evolved over the centuries; its modern features include subscripted versions of consonants used to write clusters and a division of consonants into two series with different inherent vowels.
Like most Mon–Khmer languages, Khmer permits only initial consonant clusters with up to three consonants in a row per syllable.

Saveros Pou

Pou, Saveros
Old Khmer is attested by many primary sources and has been studied in depth by a few scholars, most notably Saveros Pou, Phillip Jenner and Heinz-Jürgen Pinnow.
Saveros Pou (in Khmer, ពៅ សាវរស, transliterated Bau Sāvaras), also known around 1970 under the name Saveros Lewitz, is a French linguist of Cambodian origin.

Battambang Province

BattambangBătdâmbâng Province, Cambodia
Notable variations are found in speakers from Phnom Penh (Cambodia's capital city), the rural Battambang area, the areas of Northeast Thailand adjacent to Cambodia such as Surin province, the Cardamom Mountains, and southern Vietnam.
Battambang literally means 'loss of staff' in Khmer, referring to the local legend of Preah Bat Dambang Kranhoung.

Isan language

IsanIsan dialectdialect of Lao
This has resulted in a distinct accent influenced by the surrounding tonal languages Lao and Thai, lexical differences, and phonemic differences in both vowels and distribution of consonants.
Thai, Isan and Lao share most of their basic vocabulary as well as a large corpus of shared Sanskrit, Pali, and Khmer loanwords in academic language.

Chuon Nath

Choun NathChuon NatChuon-Nath
Many native scholars in the early 20th century, led by a monk named Chuon Nath, resisted the French and Thai influences on their language.
Amongst his achievements is his effort in conservation of the Khmer language in the form of the Khmer dictionary.

Kong River

Sekong RiverSe KongXe Kong
Khmer Khe is spoken in the Se San, Srepok and Sekong river valleys of Sesan and Siem Pang districts in Stung Treng Province.
The Kong River, also known as the Xe Kong or the Se Kong (Lao: ເຊກອງ Se Kong, (Khmer:សេកុង(official) or ស្រែគង្គ(Khmerization)), Vietnamese: sông Sê Kông) is a river in Southeast Asia.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious registers, through Hinduism and Buddhism.
In Southeast Asia, languages such as Thai and Lao contain many loanwords from Sanskrit, as do Khmer.

Cambodia

Kingdom of CambodiaKampucheaKhmer
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiăsaa khmae, dialectal khmæ or khmɛɛr, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiăsaa ) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The vast majority of Cambodia's population is of ethnic Khmer origin (over 95%) who are speakers of the Khmer language, the country's sole official language.