Khoisan

CapoidKhoi-SanCapoid raceKhoesanKhoiKhoisaKhoisan peoplesKhoisanidblackCapoids
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān (pronounced: [kxʰoesaːn]), is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).wikipedia
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Hottentot (racial term)

HottentotsHottentot
Khoekhoen, specifically, were formerly known as “Hottentots”, which was an onomatopoeic term (from Dutch hot-en-tot) referring to the click consonants prevalent in the Khoekhoe languages, as they are in all the languages grouped under "Khoesān".
The term has also been used to refer to the non-Bantu indigenous population as a whole, now collectively known as the Khoisan.

San people

SanBushmenBushman
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān (pronounced: [kxʰoesaːn]), is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
The compound Khoisan, used to refer to the pastoralist Khoi and the foraging San collectively, was coined by Leonhard Schulze in the 1920s and popularised by Isaac Schapera in 1930, and anthropological use of San was detached from the compound Khoisan,

Nama people

NamaNamaquaNamaquas
However, Khoekhoen is considered to have ethnic meaning, as it refers to a number of historical populations of speakers of closely related languages that are considered to be the historical pastoralist communities in the South African Cape region, through to Namibia, where Khoekhoe populations of Nama and Damara people are prevalent ethnicities.
For thousands of years, the Khoisan peoples of South Africa and southern Namibia maintained a nomadic life, the Khoikhoi as pastoralists and the San people as hunter-gatherers.

Sub-Saharan Africa

sub-SaharanSub Saharan AfricaSub-Saharan African
Khoesān peoples were historically also grouped as Cape Blacks (Kaap Swartes) or Western Cape Blacks (Wes-Kaap Swartes) to distinguish them from the Niger-Congo-speaking "Bantoid" or "Congoid" blacks of the other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the populations south of the Sahara were divided into three broad ancestral groups: Hamites and Semites in the Horn of Africa and Sahel related to those in North Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family; Negroes in most of the rest of the subcontinent (hence, the former toponym Black Africa for Tropical Africa ), who spoke languages belonging to the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan families; and Khoisan in Southern Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Khoisan family.

Bantu expansion

Bantu migrationBantu migrationsBantu
These Khoekhoe nations and Sān are grouped under the single term Khoesān as representing the indigenous substrate population of Southern Africa prior to the hypothesised Bantu expansion reaching the area, roughly between 1,500–2,000 years ago.
The hypothesized Bantu expansion pushed out or assimilated the hunter-forager proto-Khoisan, who had formerly inhabited Southern Africa.

Niger–Congo languages

Niger–CongoNiger-CongoNiger–Congo language family
Khoesān peoples were historically also grouped as Cape Blacks (Kaap Swartes) or Western Cape Blacks (Wes-Kaap Swartes) to distinguish them from the Niger-Congo-speaking "Bantoid" or "Congoid" blacks of the other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
The Bantu expansion, beginning around 1000 BC, swept across much of Central and Southern Africa, leading to the extinction of much of the indigenous Pygmy and Bushmen (Khoisan) populations there.

Macro-haplogroup L (mtDNA)

macro-haplogroup Lmacrohaplogroup LHaplogroup L
It is suggested that the ancestors of the modern Khoisan expanded to Southern Africa before 150,000 years ago, possibly as early as before 260,000 years ago, so that by the beginning of the MIS 5 "megadrought", 130,000 years ago, there were two ancestral population clusters in Africa, bearers of mt-DNA haplogroup L0 in southern Africa, ancestral to the Khoi-San, and bearers of haplogroup L1-6 in central/eastern Africa, ancestral to everyone else.
The formation of L0 is associated with the peopling of Southern Africa by populations ancestral to the Khoisan, ca.

Isaac Schapera

I. Schapera
Khoisan is a coinage by Leonhard Schulze in the 1920s and popularised by Isaac Schapera.
Early in his career he would focus on studies of the Khoisan of South Africa until the 1930s, when he would begin to focus on Tswana of Botswana.

Black people

blackblacksBlack African
Khoesān peoples were historically also grouped as Cape Blacks (Kaap Swartes) or Western Cape Blacks (Wes-Kaap Swartes) to distinguish them from the Niger-Congo-speaking "Bantoid" or "Congoid" blacks of the other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Khoisan women from various tribes, resulting in mixed-race children.

Dutch Cape Colony

Cape ColonyGovernor of the Cape ColonyCape of Good Hope
However, Khoekhoen is considered to have ethnic meaning, as it refers to a number of historical populations of speakers of closely related languages that are considered to be the historical pastoralist communities in the South African Cape region, through to Namibia, where Khoekhoe populations of Nama and Damara people are prevalent ethnicities.
The Khoisan nomadic people were disgruntled by the disruption of their seasonal visit to the area for which purpose they grazed their cattle at the foot of Table Mountain only to find European settlers occupying and farming the land, leading to the 1st Khoi-Dutch War as part of a series of Khoikhoi-Dutch Wars.

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
Many Khoesān peoples are the direct descendants of a very early dispersal of anatomically modern humans to Southern Africa, before 150,000 years ago.
erectus'' is estimated as having taken place over 350,000 years ago, as the Khoisan split from other populations is dated between 260,000 and 350,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)

L0L0aL0a1
It is suggested that the ancestors of the modern Khoisan expanded to Southern Africa before 150,000 years ago, possibly as early as before 260,000 years ago, so that by the beginning of the MIS 5 "megadrought", 130,000 years ago, there were two ancestral population clusters in Africa, bearers of mt-DNA haplogroup L0 in southern Africa, ancestral to the Khoi-San, and bearers of haplogroup L1-6 in central/eastern Africa, ancestral to everyone else.
It reaches its highest frequency in the Khoisan people at 73% on average.

Bantu peoples

BantuBantusBantu people
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān (pronounced: [kxʰoesaːn]), is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language). Khoesān peoples were historically also grouped as Cape Blacks (Kaap Swartes) or Western Cape Blacks (Wes-Kaap Swartes) to distinguish them from the Niger-Congo-speaking "Bantoid" or "Congoid" blacks of the other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
Under this migration hypothesis, the Bantu peoples would have assimilated and/or displaced a number of earlier inhabitants that they came across, such as Pygmy and Khoisan populations in the centre and south, respectively.

Apartheid

South Africa under apartheidapartheid in South Africaapartheid South Africa
The term Khoisan (also spelled KhoiSan, Khoi-San, Khoe-San ) has also been introduced in South African usage as a self-designation after the end of apartheid, in the late 1990s.
The Coloured group included people regarded as being of mixed descent, including of Bantu, Khoisan, European and Malay ancestry.

Ethnic groups in South Africa

South AfricaSouth AfricanBantu majority
Since the 2010s, there has been a "Khoisan activist" movement demanding recognition and land rights from the Bantu majority.
The group that completes the rest of the native population of South Africa are the Khoisan.

Namibia

NamibianRepublic of NamibiaSouth West Africa
However, Khoekhoen is considered to have ethnic meaning, as it refers to a number of historical populations of speakers of closely related languages that are considered to be the historical pastoralist communities in the South African Cape region, through to Namibia, where Khoekhoe populations of Nama and Damara people are prevalent ethnicities.
In addition to the Bantu majority, there are large groups of Khoisan (such as Nama and San), who are descendants of the original inhabitants of Southern Africa.

Afrikaans

Afrikaans languageAfrikaans-speakingAfrikaans-language
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān (pronounced: [kxʰoesaːn]), is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
A number were also indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as interpreters, domestic servants, and labourers.

Genadendal

Genadendal Mission
Georg Schmidt, a Moravian Brother from Herrnhut, Saxony, now Germany, founded Genadendal in 1738, which was the first mission station in southern Africa, among the Khoi people in Baviaanskloof in the Riviersonderend Mountains.
Many thought that mission work among the Khoisan was attempting the impossible, but in spite of this Schmidt prevailed.

Griqua people

GriquaGriquasGriqualand
Early European settlers sometimes intermarried with Khoikhoi women, resulting in a sizeable mixed-race population now known as the Griqua.
Griqua people are represented by the National Khoisan Consultative Conference (Afrikaans: Nasionale Khoe-San Oorlegplegende Konferensie), which was established in Oudtshoorn in 2001 to represent the interests of South Africa's Khoisanid peoples.

Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroupsY-DNAY-chromosome DNA haplogroup
Various Y-chromosome studies since confirmed that the Khoisan carry some of the most divergent (oldest) Y-chromosome haplogroups.

Sexual selection in humans

Sexual selection in human evolutionsexual selectionsexually selected
Charles Darwin wrote about the Khoisan and sexual selection in The Descent of Man in 1882, commenting that their steatopygia evolved through sexual selection in human evolution, and that "the posterior part of the body projects in a most wonderful manner".
Although not explicit, his observation that in Khoisan women "the posterior part of the body projects in a most wonderful manner" (known as steatopygia) implies sexual selection for this characteristic.

Khoikhoi

KhoiKhoekhoeHottentots
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoe-Sān (pronounced: [kxʰoesaːn]), is a catch-all term for the "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).

Haplogroup A (Y-DNA)

AHaplogroup Ahaplogroup A00
These haplogroups are specific sub-groups of haplogroups A and B, the two earliest branches on the human Y-chromosome tree.
Traces of ancestral inhabitants, however, can be observed today in these regions via the presence of the Y DNA haplogroups A-M91 and B-M60 that are common in certain relict populations, such as the Mbuti Pygmies and the Khoisan.

Steatopygia

accumulation of fat on the buttocksghetto bootylarge buttocks
Charles Darwin wrote about the Khoisan and sexual selection in The Descent of Man in 1882, commenting that their steatopygia evolved through sexual selection in human evolution, and that "the posterior part of the body projects in a most wonderful manner".
Steatopygia, a genetic characteristic leading to increased accumulation of adipose tissue in the buttock region, is found in women of sub-Saharan African origin, most notably (but not solely) among the Khoisan of southern Africa and Pygmies of central Africa.

Sandawe people

SandaweSandeweWasandawi
Although the Khoisan were originally thought to possess the oldest human DNA lineages, those of the Sandawe are older.