Khorloogiin Choibalsan

Choibalsan c. 1925
The Russian Consulate in Khüree played a central role in Choibalsan's early development.
Sükhbaatar (left) with Choibalsan in the early 1920s
Choibalsan in 1930s
Prime Minister Dogsomyn Bodoo
MPP General Secretary Soliin Danzan
Jambyn Lkhümbe
Deputy NKVD Chief Mikhail Frinovsky
The ruins of Manzushir Khiid, one of several hundred Buddhist monasteries destroyed during the purge.
Georgy Zhukov and Khorloogiin Choibalsan (left) consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Choibalsan hoped to unite ethnic Mongols in Inner Mongolia with the MPR
Choibalsan in military uniform at a military parade in the 1940s.
Choibalsan refused to attend Stalin's 70th-birthday celebration in 1949, sending Tsedenbal (far right) in his place.
Choibalsan's remains were interred in Sükhbaatar's mausoleum from 1954 until 2005
Choibalsan's statue stands in front of the National University in Ulaanbaatar.

The leader of Mongolia (Mongolian People's Republic) and Marshal (general chief commander) of the Mongolian People's Army from the 1930s until his death in 1952.

- Khorloogiin Choibalsan

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Stalinist repressions in Mongolia

18 month period of heightened political violence and persecution in the Mongolian People's Republic between 1937 and 1939.

Khorloogiin Choibalsan in 1930s
Deputy NKVD Chief MP Frinovsky
Luvsansharav, member of the Extraordinary Purge Commission
Choibalsan's statue stands in front of the National University in Ulaanbaatar
Monument dedicated to the victims of the repressions in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Soviet NKVD advisors, under the nominal direction of Mongolia's de facto leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan, persecuted thousands of individuals and organizations perceived as threats to the Mongolian revolution and the growing Soviet influence in the country.

Mongolian People's Republic

Socialist state which existed from 1921 to 1992, located in the historical region of Outer Mongolia in East Asia.

Mongolian People's Republic in 1989
A Soviet-Russian and Mongolian tiled mural at the World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulan-Bator, date to the era of the People's Republic.
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal led Mongolia for over 44 years
First Ulsyn Ikh Khural (State Great Assembly) which discussed and approved the first constitution, November 1924.
Yurt quarter under the Zajsan Hill, Ulaanbaatar, 1972
Distribution of military power in the Far East and Mongolia of the Soviet Union during the Cold War

After the removal of Genden from power, Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a follower of Stalin, took over.

Mongolian People's Party

Social democratic political party in Mongolia.

Communist leaders in 1949: Mao Zedong, Nikolai Bulganin, Joseph Stalin, Walter Ulbricht and Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
Former logo of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, later adopted by a new party with the same name

Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a staunch ally of Joseph Stalin, gained power.

Mongolian People's Army

Institution of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party constituting as the armed forces of the Mongolian People's Republic.

Emblem of Mongolian People's Army
Sükhbaatar is one of the founders of People's Army
A MPRA soldier on a 1932 Mongolian stamp.
Mongolian People's Army reenactors in 2006.
Roundel of the Mongolian People's Army Air Force
A horseman with MPA-style uniform performs during the opening ceremony for exercise Khaan Quest 2013 at the Five Hills Training Area in Mongolia 3 Aug. 2013
Georgy Zhukov and Khorloogiin Choibalsan (left) consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol.
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939).
Mongolian troops defend against a Japanese counterattack on the western beach of river the Khalkhin Gol, 1939.

In the 1939 Battles of Khalkhin Gol (or Nomonhan) heavily armed Red Army forces under Georgy Zhukov assisted by Mongolian troops under Khorloogiin Choibalsan decisively defeated Imperial Japanese Army forces under Michitarō Komatsubara.

Choibalsan (city)

Fourth-largest city in Mongolia after Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet.

Choibalsan (labelled as CHOYBALSAN (BAYAN TUMAN)) (1955)

The name of the city was Bayan Tümen (Баян Түмэн) until 1941, when it was renamed after the communist leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan in honor of the 20th anniversary of the Mongolian Revolution of 1921.

Dornod Province

Easternmost of the 21 aimags (provinces) of Mongolia.

The 10th century Stupa in the Khitan city of Bars-Hot
Sums of Dornod
Map including the Dornod Province area

The aimag was created during the administrative reorganisation of 1941 with the name of Choibalsan, after the communist leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan.

Damdin Sükhbaatar

Founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921.

Sükhbaatar c. 1920–22
Monument marking Sükhbaatar's birthplace
Sükhbaatar (right) with his wife Yanjmaa
Sükhbaatar on horseback
Back row from left:?,?, Rinchingiin Elbegdorj, Soliin Danzan, Damdin Sükhbaatar, Ajvaagiin Danzan, Shumyatskii, ?, Dogsomyn Bodoo
Painting of Sükhbaatar
Painting depicting Sükhbaatar meeting Vladimir Lenin in Moscow
Mongolian postage stamp of 1932 showing Sükhbaatar

Danzan and Choibalsan left in early July, Bodoo and Chagdarjav followed in mid-July.


Capital and most populous city of Mongolia.

Remains of Wang Khan's 12th-century palace in Ulaanbaatar
Detail of 19th-century painting of Urga (Ulaanbaatar): in the centre the movable square temple of Bat Tsagaan, built in 1654, besides numerous other temples
The Russian Consulate of Urga (Ulaanbaatar) and the Holy Trinity Church, both built in 1863
Engraving of N.A.Charushin's panorama photo of the old center of Urga from trip (1888) with Potanin
A 1913 panorama of Urga. The large circular compound in the middle is the Zuun Khuree temple-palace complex. The Gandan temple complex is to the left. The palaces of the Bogd are to the south of the river. To the far bottom right of the painting is the Maimaicheng district. To its left are the white buildings of the Russian consulate area. The Manjusri monastery can be seen on Mount Bogd Khan Uul at the bottom-right of the painting
1913 color photo of Gandan Monastery
Green areas were increased in the city center during the communist era.
Outdoor market near Gandan hill in 1972; State Department Store in the background
The private sector with yurts against the backdrop of high-rise new buildings in Ulaanbaatar.
Map of the districts of Ulaanbaatar
Peace Gate of the Winter Palace (Amgalan Enkhiin Khaalga in Mongolian, Andimen in Chinese), for which no nails were used
Throne given to Zanabazar by his disciple the Kangxi Emperor, used by later Jebtsundamba Khutuktus in Urga
Downtown Ulaanbaatar around Sükhbaatar Square
Mongolian National Song and Dance Academic Ensemble
Gorkhi-Terelj National Park is a popular picnic and camping ground all year round.
Main building of the National University of Mongolia
The National Library
Biking event at Peace avenue. Turkish Embassy in the background
Ulaanbaatar railway station
Ger district in Ulaanbaatar with the Temple of Boddhisattva Avalokiteshvara at Gandantegchinlen Monastery in the background.
Wedding at the Sükhbaatar Square.
International Food Festival held annually in UB in September.
Zaisan Memorial is dedicated to the Russian and Mongolian war hero.
The Sükhbaatar Square and Mongolian Parliament.
One of many events in the city. (Shown here, Naadam)
Equestrian statue of Genghis Khan.
Aryabal Meditation Center at Gorkhi-Terelj National Park.
Street art at UB's Peace Avenue
The Beatles monuments is a popular place for the youth of UB to gather around.
Khustain Nuruu National Park, home of the wild horse Takhi, is just {{convert|90|km|abbr=off}} west of UB.
thumb|Dambadarjaalin Monastery in UlaanBaatar
Ruins of the Tsogchin Temple (1749) of Manjusri Monastery
A building of the Dambadarjaalin Monastery (1765) in Sukhbaatar District
Vajradhara Temple (1841) in the center, Zuu Temple (1869) on the left, connected by a passage built in 1945–1946
Winter residence of the Bogd Gegeen, built in 1903, designed under Tsar Nicholas II
Zanabazar's Fine Arts Museum, built in 1905 by Russian merchant Gudvintsal as a trading shop
Ulaanbaatar History Museum, built in 1904 by a Buryat-Mongol merchant
Choijin Lama temple complex, built in 1904–1908
West Geser Temple in UB, built in 1919–1920 by Guve Ovogt Zakhar
Residence of Prince Chin Wang Khanddorj (Minister of Foreign Affairs), built in 1913.

These monasteries are among the very few in Mongolia to escape the wholesale destruction of Mongolian monasteries under Khorloogiin Choibalsan.


Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

In 1928, Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power.

Communist International

International organization founded in 1919 that advocated world communism, headquartered in Moscow.

The Communist International published a namesake theoretical magazine in a variety of European languages from 1919 to 1943.
The Bolshevik by Boris Kustodiev, 1920
Second Congress of the Communist International
Painting by Boris Kustodiev representing the festival of the Comintern II Congress on the Uritsky Square (former Palace square) in Petrograd
The Comintern membership card of Karl Kilbom
Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai's Delegates' Card at the 1935 Comintern's 7th Congress as she was a delegate representing the Indochinese Communist Party

Out of 11 Mongolian Communist Party leaders, only Khorloogiin Choibalsan survived.