Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorderkidney disorderskidney cellsrenal disorderKidney DiseasesRenal (Kidney)renal appendagesDuplex kidney
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates.wikipedia
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Urine

urinaryhuman urinepiss
Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder.
Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder.

Glomerulus (kidney)

glomerulusglomeruliglomerular
Filtration occurs in the glomerulus: one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered.
The glomerulus (plural glomeruli), is a network of small blood vessels (capillaries) known as a tuft, located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney.

Renal artery

renal arteriesrenalarteries of the kidneys
They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins.
The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.

Calcitriol

1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D 3 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3
For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesize the hormones erythropoietin and renin.
Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D, normally made in the kidney.

Renal vein

left renal veinveinrenal veins
They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins.
The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.

Renal physiology

tubular secretionhyperosmolalitykidney function
Renal physiology is the study of kidney function.
Renal physiology (Latin rēnēs, "kidneys") is the study of the physiology of the kidney.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.

Renin

HyperreninemiaRENblood plasma renin
For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesize the hormones erythropoietin and renin.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid) and arterial vasoconstriction.

Pyelonephritis

kidney infectionpyelitisurosepsis
Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.

Kidney cancer

renal cancerkidneyrenal
Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a group of cancers that starts in the kidney.

Renal cyst

cystkidney cystrenal
Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.
A renal cyst is a fluid collection in or on the kidney.

Ureter

uretersureteralureteropelvic junction
Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.
The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Kidney transplantation

kidney transplantrenal transplantationrenal transplant
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.

Renal biopsy

kidney biopsyComplications
Procedures used in the management of kidney disease include chemical and microscopic examination of the urine (urinalysis), measurement of kidney function by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatinine; and kidney biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy.
Renal biopsy (also kidney biopsy) is a medical procedure in which a small piece of kidney is removed from the body for examination, usually under a microscope.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are functioning at less than 15% of normal.

Nephrectomy

partial nephrectomynephroureterectomybilateral nephrectomy
Nephrectomy is frequently used to cure renal cell carcinoma.
A Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney, performed to treat a number of kidney diseases including kidney cancer.

Acid–base homeostasis

acid-base balanceacid-base homeostasisphysiological pH
The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins.
*The third line of defence is the renal system, which can add or remove bicarbonate ions to or from the ECF.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
On top of each kidney is an adrenal gland.
They are found above the kidneys.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates.

Dialysis

kidney dialysisrenal dialysisdialysis machine
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.
The kidneys have an important role in maintaining health.

Nephron

renal tubulenephronsrenal tubules
The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.

Renal fascia

Gerota's fasciaGerota CapsuleGerota's capsule
Each kidney, with its adrenal gland is surrounded by two layers of fat: the perirenal fat present between renal fascia and renal capsule and pararenal fat superior to the renal fascia. The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perirenal fat, renal fascia, and pararenal fat.
The renal fascia or Gerota's fascia is a layer of connective tissue encapsulating the kidneys and the adrenal glands.

Renal capsule

fibrous tissue capsule surrounding the kidneyInferior renal capsulekidney capsule
The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perirenal fat, renal fascia, and pararenal fat.
The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a layer of perirenal fat known as the adipose capsule of kidney.

Renal cortex

kidney cortexcortexcortical
The functional substance, or parenchyma, of the kidney is divided into two major structures: the outer renal cortex and the inner renal medulla.
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.

Renal corpuscle

vascular poleMalpighian BodiesMalpighian corpuscles
The initial filtering portion of a nephron is the renal corpuscle, which is located in the cortex.
A renal corpuscle is the blood-filtering component of the nephron of the kidney.