Kidney

kidneysrenalrenal circulationkidney disorderkidney cellskidney disordersrenal disorderRenal (Kidney)renal appendageskidney-shaped
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates.wikipedia
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Urine

urinaryhuman urinepiss
Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder.
Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder.

Renal artery

renal arteriesrenalarteries of the kidneys
They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins.
The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.

Renal vein

left renal veinveinleft renal
They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins.
The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.

Renal physiology

tubular secretionkidney functionhyperosmolality
Renal physiology is the study of kidney function.
Renal physiology (Latin rēnēs, "kidneys") is the study of the physiology of the kidney.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.

Pyelonephritis

kidney infectionpyelitisurosepsis
Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.

Renal cyst

cystkidney cystrenal
Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.
A renal cyst or kidney cyst, is a fluid collection in or on the kidney.

Kidney transplantation

kidney transplantrenal transplantrenal transplantation
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.

Renal biopsy

kidney biopsyComplications
Procedures used in the management of kidney disease include chemical and microscopic examination of the urine (urinalysis), measurement of kidney function by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatinine; and kidney biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy.
Renal biopsy (also kidney biopsy) is a medical procedure in which a small piece of kidney is removed from the body for examination, usually under a microscope.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer function.

Ureter

uretersureteralureteropelvic junction
Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Nephrectomy

partial nephrectomybilateral nephrectomykidney removal
Nephrectomy is frequently used to cure renal cell carcinoma.
Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
On top of each kidney is an adrenal gland.
They are found above the kidneys.

Acid–base homeostasis

acid-base balanceacid-base homeostasisphysiological pH
The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins.
*The third line of defence is the renal system, which can add or remove bicarbonate ions to or from the ECF.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates.
Excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.

Dialysis

kidney dialysisrenal dialysisdialysis machine
Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%.
The kidneys have an important role in maintaining health.

Renal pelvis

pyelo-kidney pelvispelvic
6. Renal pelvis •
The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the funnel-like dilated part of the ureter in the kidney.

Renal fascia

Gerota's fascia
Each kidney, with its adrenal gland is surrounded by two layers of fat: the perirenal fat present between renal fascia and renal capsule and pararenal fat superior to the renal fascia.
The renal fascia or Gerota's fascia is a layer of connective tissue encapsulating the kidneys and the adrenal glands.

Renal capsule

fibrous tissue capsule surrounding the kidneykidney capsule
9. Renal capsule •
The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a layer of perirenal fat known as the adipose capsule of kidney.

Renal medulla

medullamedullarykidney medulla
The substance, or parenchyma, of the kidney is divided into two major structures: the outer renal cortex and the inner renal medulla.
The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney.

Electrolyte

electrolyteselectrolyticionic solution
The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins.
Electrolyte balance is maintained by oral, or in emergencies, intravenous (IV) intake of electrolyte-containing substances, and is regulated by hormones, in general with the kidneys flushing out excess levels.

Renal cortex

kidney cortexcortexcortical
The substance, or parenchyma, of the kidney is divided into two major structures: the outer renal cortex and the inner renal medulla.
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.

Renal corpuscle

vascular poleMalpighian BodiesMalpighian corpuscles
The initial filtering portion of a nephron is the renal corpuscle, which is located in the cortex.
A renal corpuscle is the blood-filtering component of the nephron of the kidney.

Glucose

dextrose D -glucoseglucopyranose
Examples of substances reabsorbed are solute-free water, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, and amino acids.
In the kidneys, glucose in the urine is absorbed via SGLT1 and SGLT2 in the apical cell membranes and transmitted via GLUT2 in the basolateral cell membranes.

Interlobular arteries

interlobular arteryinterlobateinterlobular
2. Interlobular artery •
Interlobular arteries (or cortical radiate arteries or cortical radial arteries) are renal blood vessels given off at right angles from the side of the arcuate arteries looking toward the cortical substance.